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1-gross examination: A-Color of feces Depend on :-. Type of feed. Conc. Of bile pigments in the feces.. Passage rate of feed through the dig. tract *

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Presentation on theme: "1-gross examination: A-Color of feces Depend on :-. Type of feed. Conc. Of bile pigments in the feces.. Passage rate of feed through the dig. tract *"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1-gross examination: A-Color of feces Depend on :-. Type of feed. Conc. Of bile pigments in the feces.. Passage rate of feed through the dig. tract * Normal color :- ● In dog → eating bone light gray color ● In calves → suckling milk → yellow color ● In adult cattle →fed green fodder → greenish color. ● In adult cattle → fed on hay and straw → yellowish brown color * The abnormal pathological discoloration :- ● Black (dark)→ prolonged constipation ● Pale → diarrhea ● Black, tary feces → haemorrhage from abomasum, S.I ● Bright red → haemorrhage from large intestine

3 B-Consistency and form of feces * The consistency and form of feces depend on :- ● Type of feed ● Water content ● Length of time that ingesta has remained in dig – tract * Normal form of feces :- ● Equine → balls ● Cattle → semisolid mass (disc) ● Sheep & goat → pellets ● Dog & cat → some what solid ( as human ) * The Abnormal consistency of feces :- - Softness → diarrhea - hardness → constipation - pasty →. left abomasal displacement. vagus indigestion

4 C-Odor of feces The abnormal odor of feces ● Putrefactive ( offensive ) → bacterial infection of intestine ● Unpleasant → acute enteritis ● souring→ digestive disorders of horses D- Other substances in the feces 1) Mucus & fibrin ● Presence of mucus in the surface of fecal balls → the transient time of ingesta in L.I ( constipation ) also mucus→ coccidiosis ● Presence of apulg of mucus in the rectum → functional obst. ( paralyticilaus ) ● Presence of large quantities of clear watery mucus → acute enteritis (mucoid) * Fibrin :- appear in feces as long threads of gray color indicates fibrinouns enteritis

5 2) Blood  - Blackish ( dark red ) →originated from S.I N.B\ In s.I the bacteria → release H 2 S → which combined with iron → iron sulphid ( black ) - Bright red originated from large intestine cecum & colon rectum evenly distributed throughout streaks of blood unevenly the feces distributed throughout the feces  -( Melena) - Tarry black feaces: in case of abomasal ulcer in ruminants& gastric or duodenal ulcer in equine - Occult blood : swallowing of blood coughed up from pulmonary hemorrhage

6 3-PARASITES : presence of some worms as : -ascaris & cestodes 4- presence of indigested food which indicate: -indigestion & incomplete mastication 2-microscopic examination  The fecal sample(5-10gm)is collected directly from the animal in a dry clean container  The feces is kept in a refrigerator at 4*c in case of delayed examination A-Direct smear 1.place a drop of distilled water in the middle of a dry clean glass slide 2.then add small amount of feces on it 3.mix with tooth picks and place a cover slide on it 4.examine under microscope for parasitic ova  if no parasitic ova is detected...the sample should be examined by qualitative method

7 B-Qualitative method  the feces is mixed with saturated sugar solution or saturated salt solution (Na+Cl-)or33%zinc sulfate solution  the parasitic ova being lighter and float on the top of fluid and can be concentrated for examination 1.simple flotation method a-1gm of feces is mixed with few ml of distilled water b-filtration through a fine sieve c-the filtrate is mixed with (4-5ml)of saturated salt solution and placed in a test tube and filled up to the top with solution d-cover the tube with cover slide and left for 30 min. At room temperature e-remove the cover slide and examine under microscope

8 2-concentration flotation method a-1gm of feces mixed with few ml of distillated water and filtration through a fine sieve b-the filtrate is mixed with saturated sugar solution in a ratio of 1:3in a test tube c-mix the content and centrifuge at 1500 r.p.m/5min. d- transfere small amount of the supernatant on a dry clean glass slide and examine for parasitic ova **the sediment is examined for the eggs of trematodes

9 C-Quantitative concentration ethod 1-MC.Master method a-put 2gm of feces in a dry clean beaker b-add 28 ml distilled water and mix well c-take 1 ml of suspension and 1ml of saturated sugar solution and mix in another test tube d-during mixing, drain some fluid in a pipette and place in MC.Master counting chamber to fill the marked area e-count the eggs in the marked area under microscope f-to calculate No. of eggs/gm of feces,,,multiply the total count with 200. 2-Field method a-1gm of feces is mixed with 10 ml distilled water b-take 0.1ml of this mixture and place on a dry clean glass slide and cover with cover slide c-count the parasitic ova under low power d-to get the egg count/gram of feces,, multiply the count with100

10 D-Bermens method  Culture of feces for nematode larvae (lung worm larvae)  Place 20gm of feces in the funnel  Fill the funnel with warm water till the feces is completely immersed  Leave it for 24hr. At room temperature, the larvae will come out from feces through gauze to funnel neck  Take first 3-4 drops on glass slide and cover it by cover slide and examine under low power E-Vida technique in sheep a-the pellet of feces is mixed with warm water in a petridish for 10 minutes b-then crushed by forceps and examine after 10 minutes F-Examination of protozoa  For detection of intestinal protozoa such as:entamoeba,giardia or blantidium  Small amount of feces is mixed with warm saline and examined under a worm stage microscope for presence of trophozoites or cyst.


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