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Fecal examination.

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Presentation on theme: "Fecal examination."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fecal examination

2 1-gross examination: A-Color of feces
Depend on :-. Type of feed . Conc. Of bile pigments in the feces . . Passage rate of feed through the dig . tract * Normal color :- ● In dog → eating bone light gray color ● In calves → suckling milk → yellow color ● In adult cattle →fed green fodder → greenish color. ● In adult cattle → fed on hay and straw → yellowish brown color * The abnormal pathological discoloration :- ● Black (dark)→ prolonged constipation ● Pale → diarrhea ● Black , tary feces → haemorrhage from abomasum , S.I ● Bright red → haemorrhage from large intestine

3 B-Consistency and form of feces
* The consistency and form of feces depend on :- ● Type of feed ● Water content ● Length of time that ingesta has remained in dig – tract * Normal form of feces :- ● Equine → balls ● Cattle → semisolid mass (disc) ● Sheep & goat → pellets ● Dog & cat → some what solid ( as human ) * The Abnormal consistency of feces :- - Softness → diarrhea - hardness → constipation - pasty → . left abomasal displacement . vagus indigestion

4 D- Other substances in the feces
C-Odor of feces The abnormal odor of feces ● Putrefactive ( offensive ) → bacterial infection of intestine ● Unpleasant → acute enteritis ● souring→ digestive disorders of horses D- Other substances in the feces 1) Mucus & fibrin ● Presence of mucus in the surface of fecal balls → the transient time of ingesta in L.I ( constipation ) also mucus→ coccidiosis ● Presence of apulg of mucus in the rectum → functional obst . ( paralyticilaus ) ● Presence of large quantities of clear watery mucus → acute enteritis (mucoid) * Fibrin :- appear in feces as long threads of gray color indicates fibrinouns enteritis

5 cecum & colon rectum 2) Blood
- Blackish ( dark red ) →originated from S.I N.B\ In s.I the bacteria → release H2S → which combined with iron → iron sulphid ( black ) - Bright red originated from large intestine cecum & colon rectum evenly distributed throughout streaks of blood unevenly the feces distributed throughout the feces -( Melena) - Tarry black feaces: in case of abomasal ulcer in ruminants& gastric or duodenal ulcer in equine - Occult blood : swallowing of blood coughed up from pulmonary hemorrhage

6 2-microscopic examination
3-PARASITES : presence of some worms as : -ascaris & cestodes 4- presence of indigested food which indicate: -indigestion & incomplete mastication 2-microscopic examination The fecal sample(5-10gm)is collected directly from the animal in a dry clean container The feces is kept in a refrigerator at 4*c in case of delayed examination A-Direct smear place a drop of distilled water in the middle of a dry clean glass slide then add small amount of feces on it mix with tooth picks and place a cover slide on it examine under microscope for parasitic ova if no parasitic ova is detected ...the sample should be examined by qualitative method

7 simple flotation method
B-Qualitative method the feces is mixed with saturated sugar solution or saturated salt solution (Na+Cl-)or33%zinc sulfate solution the parasitic ova being lighter and float on the top of fluid and can be concentrated for examination simple flotation method a-1gm of feces is mixed with few ml of distilled water b-filtration through a fine sieve c-the filtrate is mixed with (4-5ml)of saturated salt solution and placed in a test tube and filled up to the top with solution d-cover the tube with cover slide and left for 30 min. At room temperature e-remove the cover slide and examine under microscope

8 2-concentration flotation method
a-1gm of feces mixed with few ml of distillated water and filtration through a fine sieve b-the filtrate is mixed with saturated sugar solution in a ratio of 1:3in a test tube c-mix the content and centrifuge at 1500 r.p.m/5min. d- transfere small amount of the supernatant on a dry clean glass slide and examine for parasitic ova **the sediment is examined for the eggs of trematodes

9 C-Quantitative concentration ethod
1-MC.Master method a-put 2gm of feces in a dry clean beaker b-add 28 ml distilled water and mix well c-take 1 ml of suspension and 1ml of saturated sugar solution and mix in another test tube d-during mixing, drain some fluid in a pipette and place in MC.Master counting chamber to fill the marked area e-count the eggs in the marked area under microscope f-to calculate No. of eggs/gm of feces ,,,multiply the total count with 200. 2-Field method a-1gm of feces is mixed with 10 ml distilled water b-take 0.1ml of this mixture and place on a dry clean glass slide and cover with cover slide c-count the parasitic ova under low power d-to get the egg count/gram of feces,, multiply the count with100

10 E-Vida technique in sheep F-Examination of protozoa
D-Bermens method Culture of feces for nematode larvae (lung worm larvae) Place 20gm of feces in the funnel Fill the funnel with warm water till the feces is completely immersed Leave it for 24hr. At room temperature, the larvae will come out from feces through gauze to funnel neck Take first 3-4 drops on glass slide and cover it by cover slide and examine under low power E-Vida technique in sheep a-the pellet of feces is mixed with warm water in a petridish for 10 minutes b-then crushed by forceps and examine after 10 minutes F-Examination of protozoa For detection of intestinal protozoa such as:entamoeba,giardia or blantidium Small amount of feces is mixed with warm saline and examined under a worm stage microscope for presence of trophozoites or cyst.

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