Presentation on theme: "Climate Trends and Wheat Straw Supplies Dave Sauchyn, Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative, University of Regina North American Mushroom Conference,"— Presentation transcript:
Climate Trends and Wheat Straw Supplies Dave Sauchyn, Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative, University of Regina North American Mushroom Conference, Vancouver, 23 June 2013
Climate: from klima (ancient Greek) meaning inclination: a tendency, characteristic likelihood climate is the statistics of weather “weather is what we get, climate is what we expect” What is climate change? Climate change: a statistically significant variation in the mean climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (decades or longer).
April 2013 was the 339th consecutive month (more than 28 years) with a global temperature above the 20th century average. Every month has been warmer than average since May, 1985.
Question 1 A recent study reviewed 13,950 scientific articles on the topic of climate change. How many of these articles concluded that there was no human caused global warming?
Question 2 Anthropogenic (human caused) global warming is a relatively recent scientific discovery True False
Joseph Fourier (1768 –1830) – 1824 Svante August Arrhenius (1859 –1927) Guy Stewart Callendar (1898 – 1964)
Question 3 The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere currently is 300 ppm 330 ppm 375 ppm 400 ppm
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Source: NASA
The level of the most important heat-trapping gas in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide, has passed a long-feared milestone, scientists reported Friday, reaching a concentration not seen on the Earth for millions of years. Scientific monitors reported that the gas had reached an average daily level that surpassed 400 parts per million – just an odometer moment in one sense, but also a sobering reminder that decades of efforts to bring human- produced emissions under control are faltering.
Average Winter Temperatures (° C), Edmonton, : - 20° C
David Sauchyn - 6° F = - 21° C
Thanks to: Lawrence Zimmermann, Highline Mushrooms (Ontario) Burton Loveday, Loveday Mushrooms (Manitoba) Mike Manion, All Seasons Mushrooms (Alberta & BC) Don Needham, Hy-Tech Compost (U.S.)
Planting intentions for 2013 in M acres (Statistics Canada)
Global Crop Production
Observed Long-Term Trends for Agroclimatic Conditions in Canada Qian et al. 2010
EGDD: effective growing degree-days computed by applying a day-length factor to GDD Qian et al GSS: growing season start GSE: growing season end
Percentage of stations showing a significant positive trend (++) or a significant negative trend (--) EGDD: effective growing degree-days computed by applying a day-length factor to GDD
We find a significant increasing trend in the length of the growing season and in the associated available heat. The winter temperature is less damaging and the frost-free periods are longer. We also find trends in precipitation- related indices that indicate more availability of water, though the trend in the main agriculture region is less significant. QIAN et al Observed Long-Term Trends for Agroclimatic Conditions in Canada
CMI is a measure of variability in the ratio of plant water demand to precipitation. It is an indicator of highly variable climates potentially vulnerable to periodic water stress. Interannual Variation in Moisture
Inter-Annual Moisture Variability, North America
From: Sokhansanj et al Production and distribution of cereal straw on the Canadian prairies.
Question 4 Have you ever experienced a shortage of wheat straw due poor growing conditions, too little or too rain, in a wheat producing area? Yes No
1. Drought: Prairie provinces, Drought: Prairie provinces and Central and Southern ON, Jul Drought: Prairie provinces, Drought: Prairie provinces, Freezing rain: Ontario to New Brunswick, Jan * Drought, Prairies, , $.58 B
9. Drought: Prairie Provinces, Drought: Prairie Provinces, Drought: Prairie Provinces, Drought: Western Canada, Drought: Prairie Provinces, Drought: Prairie Provinces, Drought: Prairie Provinces, Hailstorm: Calgary AB, Sept Flood: Assiniboine, Red and Winnipeg Rivers MB, May Tornado: Edmonton AB, Jul
departures from the mean Mean annual flow (m 3 /s) North Saskatchewan River at Edmonton, Sauchyn et al. 2011
Cycles in the tree rings
El Niño remote impacts: Teleconnections La Niña teleconnections have the opposite effect Neelin, Climate Change and Climate Modeling, Cambridge UP
Munich Reinsurance (2012) Severe weather in North America
"Best Management Practices: For the Agricultural Climate of Tomorrow” Vegreville, AB, March 26, 2009