Presentation on theme: "Nongreen revolution for socioeconomic transformation in Terai Jay Kant Raut, Ph.D. Central Department of Biotechnology Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Kathmandu."— Presentation transcript:
Nongreen revolution for socioeconomic transformation in Terai Jay Kant Raut, Ph.D. Central Department of Biotechnology Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Kathmandu 2011/11/14
Nongreen revolution immense amount of lignocellulosic biomass resource, which, like solar energy, is sustainable more than 70% of agricultural and forest products have not been put to total productivity and have been discarded as wastes mushrooms not only can convert these huge lignocellulosic biomass wastes into human food but also can produce notable biomedicinal products, which have many health benefits
A mushroom-based industry utilizing the lignocellulosic waste materials can have a positive long-term global impact on human nutrition, human health, environmental conservation and regeneration, as well as promoting economic and social changes Therefore, the significant impact of mushroom cultivation, mushroom derivatives and products on human welfare in the 21st century can be considered globally as a “Nongreen Revolution” Nongreen revolution
What is a mushroom? Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of certain fungi—the equivalent of the apple, not of the tree..
To date about 812 species (227 genera 675 species- Basidiomycotina;59 genera and 137 species- Ascomycotina) edible (110 spp.), Poisonous (65 spp.) fermentation (5 spp.) decoration (12 spp.) mycorrhizal (50 spp.) medicinal (73 spp.) other uses 5 (spp.) Total mushroom diversity of Nepal
Mushroom Farming: Global Scenario It has great scope in developing countries like Nepal, China, India because of the cheap and easily available raw materials needed for this activity. China as for example, in 1978, the production of edible mushrooms was only 60,000 tonnes while In 2006, it was over 14 million tonnes. More than 30 million people directly or indirectly engaged in mushroom production and businesses China has become a leading mushroom producer and consumer in the world Its global production has reached 33.4 million tons in 2007 while it was 26 million tons in 2000 The world market in 2006 was valued at over US$ 60 billion while it was US$ 40 billion in 2001
Top world producer of mushrooms (2007) Sources: FAO, United Nations
Mushroom Farming: Domestic Scenario Mushroom farming started in 1974 on commercial scale from Kathmandu valley The production was 30 kg in that year which has reached to 834 metric tons in 2010 The per capita consumption/day reached 0.02 g in 2005 from 0.01 g in 2000 These increase can be taken as a highly encouraging sign coming from the potential mushroom consumers in Nepal In 2005, its import was 0.06 thousand metric tons and export was 0.03 thousand metric tons
Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Shitake (Lentinus edodes) Oyster (Pleurotus sajor-caju) Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) Straw mushroom (Volvarielia volvaceae) Black mushroom (Auricularia polytrica) The most popular mushrooms in Nepal which have been farming on commercial scale
Advantage of Mushroom Cultivation 1. Wastes such as cereal straws are largely burnt by the farmers, which causes air pollution. It is ecofriendly activities and can greatly reduce environmental pollution. 2. It is a labour intensive activity and serve as means of generating employment, particularly for rural women and youths in order to raise their social status. 3. It enriches the diet with high quality proteins, minerals and vitamins which can be of direct benefit to the human health and fitness. The extractable bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms would enhance human’s immune systems and improve their quality of life.
Nutritional Attribute Food value of the different cultivated mushroom (% fresh weight) Mushrooms/ Food ItemsProteinCHOFatCalciumThiamineRiboflavinIronNiacin (Ca)Vit. B1Vit. B2(Fe)Vit. B3 Pleurotus pulmonarius2.95.661.722.214.171.124.47.72 (26-35)* Volvariella volvacea3.860.6126.96.36.199.3 (25-29)* Agaricus brunnescens3.5188.8.131.52.1-trace5.85 (24-34)* Lentinula edodes184.108.40.2063--1.97.6 (13-17)* Auricularia polytricha220.127.116.11.150.080.193.64 (4-8)* Potato29.10110.10.040.70.04 Milk18.104.22.168180.040.170.10.17 Fish14-202-31-215601.21.51.2 Egg13213.368180.271-150.27 Meat21-22.214.171.124.292.5229 Carrot126.96.36.19990.06 0.80.06 Compiled from various sources. * Numbers in parenthesis are dry weight data (Sources: Tropical Mushroom Cultivation by T.H. Quimio, 2002)
Advantage of Mushroom Cultivation 4. Mushroom cultivation is a cash crop. It generates additional family income or foreign exchange that will definitely improve the economic standards of the people. 5. Some tropical mushrooms ( e.g. Straw mushrooms) are relatively fast growing organisms and can be harvested in 3 to 4 weeks after spawning. It is a short return agricultural business and can be of immediate benefit to the community.
Suitability of Mushroom farming in Terai A wet and warm climate and have an abundant supply of agricultural wastes which are relatively cheap A plentiful supply of manual labor Costs of building materials and other inputs related to construction costs are much lower Comparatively well facility of transportation
Suitability of Mushroom farming in Terai Terai is bordering the highly populated Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttaranchal with potential huge market The supply and demand gap in the world trade of mushrooms and the shrinkage of production in countries like Japan, Taiwan and South Korea due to high labor costs would result in better international market prices for Terai mushroom producers
SubstrateMushroom species Rice Straw Straw(Volvariella), Oyster (Pleurotus), Button (Agaricus) Wheat straw Oyster (Pleurotus), Button (Agaricus), Stropharia, Straw (Volvariella) SawdustShiitake (Lentinus), Oyster (Pleurotus), Ear (Auricularia), Reishi (Ganoderma), Maitake (Grifola frondosa), Lion’s Head or Pom Pom (Hericium) Sawdust-strawOyster (Pleurotus), Stropharia Cotton wasteOyster (Pleurotus), Straw (Volvariella) from textile industry LogsNameko (Pholiota), Shiitake (Lentinus) White jelly (Tremella) Crushed bagasse andOyster (Pleurotus) molasses wastes from sugar industry Water hyacinth/Water lilyOyster (Pleurotus), Straw (Volvariella) Banana leavesStraw (Volvariella) Bean strawOyster (Pleurotus) Sawdust-rice branNameko (Pholiota), Ear (Auricularia), Shiitake (Lentinus) Shaggy Mane (Coprinus), Winter (Flammulina), Various types of raw substrate available in Terai and associated mushroom species
Socioeconomic Impact The people can get themselves trained on mushroom cultivation or mushroom seed production to earn their livelihood Very profitable entrepreneurship. One can get a minimum 40% profit out of mushroom cultivation It can provide self employment opportunity to large number of unemployed youth, farmers and specially the woman entrepreneurs Women in Terai are mostly confined to indoor activities. They can perform it in their house to generate additional income and improve their socioeconomic conditions
Socioeconomic Impact Strongly discourage the youth migration for foreign employment in the society Alleviate the malnutrition in the society providing a good source of protein nutrition in the substitute of animal protein (meat)
Recommendations Peoples should be made aware on recent development of mushroom and its farming through local media and other possible means (e.g. mushroom fair, mushroom excursion, mushroom dinner). Mushroom farming is both a science and an art. The science, in its broad form, will come through research, training, workshops/courses. The art will come through practical involvement and experience, Thus, regional mushroom resource centers should be established that produce technical manpower to operate and manage the mushroom farming venture
Recommendations Quality spawn (mushroom seeds), and necessary technical assistance should be made available to growers on time Till now, mostly the mushroom farming were done in farmers level i.e. cottage industry level. Thus, now it should be encouraged for large agro-industry level Well organized distribution network should be established that facilitates the marketing of products. Mushroom processing plants should be installed with the resource centers. A separate unit for quality control and certification should be established that will standardize the product for national and international marketing.
A regular intake of mushrooms can make you healthier, fitter, and happier. They can make you live longer, and always look younger.