Presentation on theme: "Arguments introduction. arguments An argument is a series of statements, one of which is offered as a statement to be supported, and the rest of which."— Presentation transcript:
arguments An argument is a series of statements, one of which is offered as a statement to be supported, and the rest of which are offered as support. A conclusion is a statement to be supported. A premise is a statement that offers support.
arguments T he Benefits Argument. The Parents’ suggestion was based on the idea that, because Theresa was going to die soon anyway, her organs were doing her no good. The other children, however, could benefit from them. Thus, their reasoning seems to have been: If we can benefit someone, without harming anyone else, we ought to do so. Transplanting the organs would benefit the other children without harming Baby Theresa. Therefore, we ought to transplant the organs.
the benefits argument 1. If we can benefit someone, without harming anyone else, we ought to do so. 2. Transplanting the organs would benefit the other children without harming Baby Theresa. 3. [Therefore] We ought to transplant the organs.
validity A valid argument is one in which it is impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false—i.e., if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true as well. An invalid argument is one in which it is possible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false.
soundness A sound argument is a valid argument with all true premises. An unsound argument is an argument that is either invalid or has a false premise.
fallacies A fallacy is a bad argument with the power to persuade.
Equivocation The fallacy of equivocation occurs when someone uses the same word in two different ways.
equivocation T here are 365 days in the year, but the average person only works 8 hours a day. That’s one- third of a 24-hour day. So the average person only works the equivalent of one-third of 365 days—that is, about 122 days. However, the average person doesn’t work on the weekends. This means 2 days off a week. There are 52 weeks in a year, so there are 104 days off per year. Subtracting this from 122 days leaves only 18 days. But the average person gets at least this many days off each year between holidays and vacation time. So the average person doesn’t work at all.
false dilemma A false dilemma is an argument that presupposes there are only two options on some issue, when in fact there are more.
false dilemma O ur response [to 9/11] involves far more than instant retaliation and isolated strikes. Americans should not expect one battle, but a lengthy campaign, unlike any other we have ever seen. It may include dramatic strikes, visible on TV, and covert operations, secret even in success. We will starve terrorists of funding, turn them one against another, drive them from place to place, until there is no refuge or no rest. And we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism. Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists. (Applause.) -G.W. Bush
straw man A straw man is an argument that attacks a misrepresentation of some view and then concludes that the view is false.
straw man Y ou have perhaps noted that global warming has struck Washington, hard. Since Gore behind talking about this nonsense, the weather has gone cold all over North America: We’ve had record storms in the Midwest; we have a record low temperature right now at Washington, D.C., for this time of year. So, everything seems to be saying, God seems to be saying “Gore is wrong!” -Lyndon Larouche
who cares? Average GRE Scores by Intended Graduate Major, 7/1/01-6/30/04 V ERBAL R EASONING Q UANTITATIVE R EASONING A NALYTICAL W RITING 1. PHILOSOPHY 589 1. Physics / Astronomy 738 1. PHILOSOPHY 5.1 2. English Lang. & Lit. 559 2. Mathematics 733 2. English Lang. & Lit. 4.9 3. Humanities & Arts – other 558 3. Engineering – Materials 729 3. Arts & Humanities – other 4.8 4. History 543 4. Engineering – Electrical 728 4. History 4.8 5. Arts – History, Theory 538 5. Engineering – Chemical 727 5. Political Science 4.8 6. Religion 538 6. Engineering – Mechanical 723 6. Religion 4.8 7. Physics / Astronomy 534 7. Engineering – other 714 7. Anthropology/Archaeology 4.7 8. Library/Archival Sciences 533 8. Engineering – Industrial 710 8. Arts – History, Theory 4.7 9. Anthropology/Archaeology 532 9. Business – Bank. & Fin. 709 9. Education – Higher 4.6 10. Foreign Lang. & Lit. 529 10. Economics 706 10. Foreign Lang. & Lit. 4.6 11. Political Science 522 11. Computer & Info. Sciences 704 11. Sociology 4.6 12. Economics 504 12. Engineering – Civil 702 12. Communications 4.5 13. Mathematics 502 13. Chemistry 682 13. Economics 4.5 14. Earth/Atmos./Marine Scs. 495 14. Earth/Atmos./Marine Scs. 637 14. Education – Secondary 4.5 15. Engineering – Materials 494 15. PHILOSOPHY 636 15. Library/Archival Sciences 4.5