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BAE 2023 Lecture 18 March 5, 2012 Jasreen K Sekhon Cultural practices in grain storage.

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Presentation on theme: "BAE 2023 Lecture 18 March 5, 2012 Jasreen K Sekhon Cultural practices in grain storage."— Presentation transcript:

1 BAE 2023 Lecture 18 March 5, 2012 Jasreen K Sekhon Cultural practices in grain storage

2 Grain Production in the World: Statistics Rank Barley (000’MT)Maize (000’MT)Rice (000’MT)Wheat (000’MT) 1France10102USA316165China197212 China 115180 2 Australia7294China177540India120620 India 80710 3 Ukraine8484Brazil56060Indonesia66411 USA 60102 4 USA3924Argentina22676Bangladesh49355 France 38207 5 Germany10412Indonesia18364Vietnam39988 Russian Federation 41507 6 Morocco2566Mexico23301Myanmar33204 Pakistan 23310 7 UK 5252India14060Thailand31597 Canada 23166 8 China2520 South Africa 12815Philippines15771 Australia 22138 9 Argentina2983France13975Brazil11308 Turkey 19660 10 Turkey7240Nigeria7305USA11027 Argentina 14914 http://www.agrostats.com/world-statistic/world-production-statistics.html

3 U.S. Crop Standards Standard weight Standard moisture Standard price Wheat60 lb (27.2 kg) per bushel13.5% $/bu Barley48 lb (21.8 kg) per bushel14.5% $/bu Oats32 lb (14.5 kg) per bushel14.0% $/bu Flaxseed56 lb (25.4 kg) per bushel8.0% $/bu Corn56 lb (25.4 kg) per bushel15.5% $/bu Sorghum56 lb (25.4 kg) per bushel14.0% $/cwt Soybeans60 lb (27.2 kg) per bushel14.0% $/bu 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 3 Holland, T. 2011. Overview of Sample Surveys for Forecasting & Estimating U.S. Crops. Regional Workshop on Sampling for Agricultural Surveys, Uruguay.

4 Post Harvest Losses (PHL) 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 4 Harvest (1-3%)Pre-dryingThreshing/Shelling (2-6% Loss)Pre-cleaningDrying (1-5%)Cleaning/SortingMarketing Storage (2-6 % Loss) Processing (6.25-18% Loss)

5 % Post Harvest Losses (PHL) 3/5/2012 5 Gustavsson, J., C. Cederberg, R. V. Otterdijik, and A. Meybeck. 2011. Global food losses and food waste-extent, causes and prevention. FAO of United Nations. Rome According to the FAO, about 30 million metric tons of corn, 20 million metric tons of wheat, and nearly 3 million metric tons of soybeans – with an aggregate value estimated at more than US$14 billion – went to waste worldwide in 2007

6 Reasons for PHL in the storage 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 6 1. Poor product coming into storage 2. Poor storage structures 3. Poor storage management

7 but, Why Store? 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 7 Even out fluctuations in market supply, from one season to the next and from one year to the next, by taking produce off the market in surplus seasons, and releasing it back onto the market in lean seasons

8 Who Stores? 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 8 Farmers Future consumption Seed Future cash Traders Government Food security reserve Price stabilization stock National storage reserves

9 Quality characteristics of stored grain 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 9 The condition of stored grain is determined by a complex interaction between (Lacey, 1988): Grain Macro-environment Micro-environment, and Variety of organisms- microorganisms, insects, mites, rodents and birds

10 Quality characteristics of stored grains 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 10 Intrinsic  Color  Composition  Bulk density  Aroma/Odor  Size/shape Induced quality  Age  Broken grain  Chalky or immature  Foreign matter  Infested, infected grain  Mixed varieties  Moisture content

11 Purpose of a Storage Facility 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 11 The purpose of any grain storage facility is to prevent grain quality loss from weather, wind and moisture; rodents, birds and insects, and microorganisms

12 What is required of a good storage system 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 12 Prevention of moisture re-entering the grain after drying Maintenance of temperature and humidity by aeration Barrier to insects, rodents and birds Good Sanitation practices Ease of loading and unloading Efficient use of space and ease of maintenance and management Monitoring!

13 Good Management Practices 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 13 Pre-harvest Practices Sanitation: bin and handling equipment preparation; bin treatments Grain treatment: protectants (Melathion, Chlorpyrifos- methyl) Surface dressing (Melathion, Reldan, Bacillus thuringiensis) Fumigation (Phosphine) Post-harvest Operations Monitoring Aeration

14 On Farm vs. Off Farm Storage 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 14 Fixed Cost: cost of owning the facility Variable Cost: cost incurred during grain storage Most often On-farm storage is not preferred

15 On Farm Storage: Cylindrical Metal/Wooden bins 15 Flat floor bins: non-aerated with flat concrete or metal floors False-floor bins: rounded metal structure typically with a ground- level floor made of concrete and a metal, fully perforated floor located 12” above the concrete floor to allow air movement through the grain mass. Drying bins are false-floor bins Hopper bottom bins equipped for aeration

16 Commercial Grain Storage: Bucket elevators 3/5/2012 16 1842 Wooden Bucket elevators (Steam boilers) Wood readily available but, Fire Hazard 1897 Steal & Concrete Bucket elevators (Electric)

17 Commercial Grain Storage: Bucket Elevators 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 17 Enid Terminal Grain Elevators Historic District (1925-1959) Oklahoma Largest grain storage capacity (80,000,00 Bu) in the US, and third largest in the World

18 Commercial Storage: Large Metal bins 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 18 Roll formed 8 – 5 gauge thick steel with tensile strength of 483Mpa with Capacity up to 730,000 Bu – 1 million Bu

19 Commercial storage: Large bins, Silos Hopper Bottom Bin Flat Bottom Bin Bin Flooring

20 India 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 20 PHL in food grains 8-12% in 2009-10 On farm storage more common because 70% of farmers produce for their own consumption Traditional methods: Underground or Above ground storage Bagged Storage (40-50 kg/bag) Off farm storage: Bulk Storage http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/x5002e/X5002e02.htm

21 India: Post Harvest Handling of Grains Harvesting Threshing Selling Transportation Bagging FCI Godowns

22 Traditional Underground Storage 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 22 Local nameStateMaterial of constructio n ShapeDimensionCapacity Khani or Patra Orissa A.P.Dug out with sides plastered with animal waste RectangularD = 150 cm Sides: 150- 200cm 2-3 ton KhaiRajasthanWell, lined with stone/sand- cement Circular or rectangular D=600cm Dia = 600 cm Upto 60 ton

23 Traditional Above ground storage structures 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 23 Local nameStateMaterial of construction ShapeCapacity KhothiBihar, Punjab, U.P. Unburnt clay mixed with straw and mud- animal waste or brick Cylindrical/Rect angular 1-50 ton KanagiMysore and M.S.Bamboo plastered with clay Cylindrical1-20 ton KothaPunjab and U.P.Small shed built with brick and masonary Cylindrical5-100ton

24 Traditional Above ground storage 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 24 Mud, animal waste, straw: Grain Storage AP, India Kotha, Punjab, India

25 On Farm Grain Storage 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 25 Pusa Bin: LDPE sandwiched bin Coal-tar drum Bin Domestic Hapur Bin Pusa Bin Domestic Hapur Bin (200- 1000 kg)

26 Bulk Storage of Grains FCI godowns: brick walls with concrete flooring Cover and Plinth (CAP) Storage: concrete flooring with polyethylene cover Silos: Concrete/Metal Punjab: lost 16,500 tones of wheat between 2007-2009

27 Traditional Bag Storage (Indonesia) 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 27

28 Granary (Laos) 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 28

29 Concrete Bin (Bhutan) 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 29

30 Wednesday Lab Work! Due March 19 th, 2012 3/5/2012 BAE 2023 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 30 Each Lab Group: Select a country and review its methods for handling and storage of grains Report: post harvest handling of grains; % PHL; traditional storage vs present storage systems Prepare PowerPoint presentation The PowerPoint should have enough information (include references) that it provides good information without a speech going along with it Submit to: jasreen@okstate.edu; and copy to jcarol@okstate.edujasreen@okstate.edujcarol@okstate.edu


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