Philia love Sophia wisdom Philosophy = love of wisdom
Philosophy is thinking Philosophers think about life’s most basic questions: What is the purpose of life? Is there a God? How do we know the difference between right and wrong? Are our actions free or determined? Doing philosophy is one of the most common activities of life Philosophy is active, not passive
Fundamental issues Reality What is the nature of reality? Personhood What does it mean to be a person? Free Will How free are we? Knowledge What is involved in knowing something? God, Life After Death, The Purpose of Life Where did it all come from? What is the purpose of life?
Practical issues Right and Wrong How do we separate right from wrong? Community organization What kind of government do you want?
The subject matter of Philosophy Philosophical Questions Involve conceptual issues Philosophical “Answers” Generally more than one plausible answer
Analytical Abilities Development better analytical abilities Useful in a variety of professions Vision and insight Socrates-“The unexamined life is not worth living”
PPhilosophical questions are primarily_____. a) factual b) empirical c) conceptual d) subjective
PPhilosophical questions _____. a) have a single, correct, logical answer b) are solved by using a scientific, empirical methodology c) are solved by appealing to philosophical authorities d) generally have more than one plausible answer
The value of studying philosophy is that it _____. a) teaches you how to argue so well that you can make a bad case look good b) develops your analytical abilities and your capacity for abstract thought c) strengthens your emotions d) makes you a more ethical person
The Greek philosopher Socrates said, _____. a) “He who dies with the most toys wins” b) “The examined life is not worth living” c) “The unexamined life is not worth living” d) “Philosophy makes the examined life unnecessary”
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. Someone with critical thinking skills is able to do the following : understand the logical connections between ideas identify, construct and evaluate arguments detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning solve problems systematically identify the relevance and importance of ideas reflect on the justification of one's own beliefs and values
…accumulating information …having good memory …knowing a lot of facts
Danger lies before you, while safety lies behind, Two of us will help you, whichever you would find, One among us seven will let you move ahead, Another will transport the drinker back instead, Two among our number hold only nettle wine, Three of us are killers, waiting hidden in line. Choose, unless you wish to stay here forevermore, To help you in your choice, we give you these clues four: First, however slyly the poison tries to hide You will always find some on nettle wine's left side; Second, different are those who stand at either end, But if you would move onward, neither is your friend; Third, as you see clearly, all are different size, Neither dwarf nor giant holds death in their insides; Fourth, the second left and the second on the right Are twins once you taste them, though different at first sight.
incorrect reasoning in argumentation resulting in a misconception.
A term that has more than one meaning Billy is a good tennis player. Therefore, Billy is 'good', that is to say a 'morally' good person.
Trying to prove too much from your evidence (It argues from a special case to a general rule) Argument: Every person I've met speaks English, so it must be true that all people speak English. Problem: Those one has met are a subset of the entire set.
Arguing against the person "You can't believe Jack when he says the proposed policy would help the economy. He doesn't even have a job."
Demonstrates a conclusion by means of premises that assume that conclusion Argument: Billy always tells the truth, I know this because he told me so. Problem: Billy may be lying.
“After this, therefore because of this" Since that event followed this one, that event must have been caused by this one Argument: After Mike was vaccinated he developed autism, therefore the vaccine caused his autism. Problem: This does not provide any evidence that the vaccine was the cause. The characteristics of autism may generally become noticeable at the age just following the typical age children receive vaccinations.
Drawing an unwarranted conclusion about the cause of something Argument: More cows die in India in the summer months. More ice cream is consumed in summer months. Therefore, the consumption of ice cream in the summer months is killing Indian cows. Problem: It is hotter in the summer, resulting in both the death of cows and the consumption of ice cream.Also called causation versus correlation.
If the antecedent is not true, then neither is the consequent Argument: If it is raining outside, it must be cloudy. It is not raining outside. Therefore, it is not cloudy. Problem: There does not have to be rain in order for there to be clouds.
Relying on the authority of its source Argument: The president believes that war is justifiable, therefore it must be justifiable. Problem: The president can be wrong.
Claiming there are fewer options than is actually the case Argument: The country of the United States: Love it or leave it. Problem: Nobody is obligated to love the country in order to be there. Nobody is obligated to leave a country based on love for such country.
It manipulates people’s emotions to get them to accept a claim as being true. Very common in politics and marketing. Argument: I know I didn’t do the assignment and turn it in on time, but my grandmother is visiting from out of the country, and I am her only grandchild ! Problem: This claim appeals or preys upon the emotions of the listener to obtain something from him/her.
It manipulates people’s emotions to get them to accept a claim as being true. Very common in politics and marketing. Argument: The new PowerMango computer gives you the super wonderful and amazing power you need and want. If you buy one, people will desire and envy your fantastic and fabulous power. They will look up to you and wish they were as just as fantastic like you. You will know the true and unmatchable joy and glory of power. PowerMango! Problem: This claim uses words such as wonderful, amazing, power, envy, joy, glory (and more) in order to get someone’s attention, but it doesn’t provide evidence of their claim.
Accent refers to the stress placed upon a word in a sentence or a syllable in a word. Depending on it the meaning can change. Many times there is an ambiguous meaning. Argument: Dan told me “I've never seen you looking better!” so he really liked me. Problem: Dan could have been sarcastic or could have also mean that the other person has improved his or her image regardless whether Dan likes the other person or not.
Asserting that some event must inevitably follow from another without any argument for the inevitability of the event in question. Argument: We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester! Problem: There is no evidence that the semester will increase to $40,000 based on the fact that the tuition will increase. Many more factors come to play (data, patterns, current increase, etc).
A fallacy based on the assumption that a statement must be true if it cannot be proved false. Argument: There is intelligent life in outer space, for no one has been able to prove that there isn't. Problem: Nobody knows all the confines of the outer space to conclude that there is in fact no life.
A straw man is a component of an argument and is an informal fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position.To "attack a straw man" is to create the illusion of having refuted a proposition by substituting it with a superficially similar yet unequivalent proposition (the "straw man"), and refuting it, without ever having actually refuted the original position.. Argument: Person A: Our society should spend more money helping the poor.Person B: Studies show that handouts don't work; they just create more poverty and humiliate the recipients. That money could be better spent. Problem: Person A never said handing out money to the poor.
Hard-determinists Materialism The idea that all things are physical Nothing immaterial exists All physical things are subject to natural laws like cause and effect Astrology Our actions and fates are caused by celestial objects Sun, planets, and constellations
Hard-determinists Predestination Our final destination—heaven or hell—is already logged into the heavenly computer Fatalism Destiny will bring people together Oedipus the King
Behaviorism Focuses on human observable behavior and denies free will Behavior can be observable and predictable Stimulus (cause) and response (effect) Positive and negative reinforcements Smiles or spits
Castle and Frazier Drops matches to prove Frazier wrong Result of positive reinforcement from other times where he was praised when he proved colleagues wrong
Human Freedom and the Weather Weather forecasting imprecise due to lack of information Behavior prediction imprecise due to lack of information
Freud as one of the most important figures in the history of western thought Patients had problems with no medical cause Used free association to uncover feelings causing their illness
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious Conscious What we are aware of from moment to moment Preconscious A data bank where people store memories, thoughts, and feelings that people can easily retrieve and make conscious Unconscious The part of our personality of which we are not aware, but influences our thoughts and actions Biggest part of the personality Tip of the iceberg
Expressions of the Unconscious “Freudian slips” Dreams
The Unconscious and Determinism The power of advertising
The id The most deeply buried part of the unconscious Two basic drives; sex and aggression Irrational and unrealistic
The ego Something close to the self Controls the id Horse and rider
The superego A part of the unconscious over and above the ego Riding instructor Inner criticism
Ego moves to reduce anxiety as a reflex action All this goes on without our knowledge
Projection is where we attribute our feelings to someone else Reaction formation takes a disturbing impulse and converts it into its opposite
The effect of early childhood experiences have on adult personality Needs of childhood need to be met be before moving into next stage of development
Psychoanalysis is a process where the patient talks freely about thoughts and feelings Unconscious forces can be re-channeled in a better direction
Neither thinker puts much weight on nations of blame or moral responsibility
Understanding a situation by breaking it into smaller pieces, or tracing the implications of a situation in a step-by-step causal way It includes organizing the parts of a problem or situation in a systematic way; making systematic comparisons of different features or aspects; setting priorities on a rational basis; identifying time sequences, causal relationships, or If ► Then relationships.
Follows a scientific approach Problem Hypothesis FactsAnalysis Solution