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Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,

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Presentation on theme: "Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W. 13-15, Th. 13-15,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Energy (TKK-2129) 13/14 Spring Semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu , W , Th , F

3 Outlines 1. Biomass energy: Intro 2. Biomass energy sources 3. Biomass to energy technology 4. Recent update on biomass energy

4 Biomass energy: Intro

5 What is it?? organic material made from plants and animals contains stored energy from the sun Plants absorb the sun's energy in a process called photosynthesis. The chemical energy in plants gets passed on to animals and people that eat them

6 Biomass energy: Intro What is it considered as renewable?? we can always grow more trees and crops, and waste will always exist. Some examples of biomass fuels are wood, crops, manure, and some garbage. When it is burned, chemical energy is released as heat It can also be burned to produce steam for electricity generation

7 Biomass energy: Intro Advantages Most of them are renewable and abundant Solve energy crisis in the future – reduce dependency on fossil fuel High energy efficiency Generally it does not polluted the atmosphere as much as oil and coal Reduce landfill

8 Biomass energy: Intro Disadvantages More serious air pollution was found when burning plants matters, e.g: particulate matter from solid Emission some toxic gases and ash It takes too much energy to collect, dry and transport Cutting too many woods is a kind of deforestation can cause soil erosion and natural disasters It uses large area to grow biomass Food security problem will arise

9 Biomass energy: Resources

10 Biomass energy: Resources Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia NONON FOSSIL ENERGY RESOURCES (SD) INSTALLED CAPACITY (KT) RATIO KT/SD (%) = 4/3 1Hydro75,670 MW 6, MW8,8% 2Geothermal29,038 MW1,226 MW 4,2% 3Mini/Micro Hydro MW MW 29,75% 4Biomass49,810 MW1, MW 3,25 % 5Solar Energy4.80 kWh/m 2 /day22.45 MW - 6Wind Energy3 – 6 m/s1.87 MW - 7Uranium3,000 MW *) 30 MW **) 1.00 *) only in Kalan – West Kalimantan **) non energy, only for research

11 Biomass energy: Resources Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam Animal Population (2010) in Indonesia and South Sumatera Province

12 Biomass energy: Resources Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam Agriculture Production (2010) in Indonesia and South Sumatera Province (SSP)

13 Biomass energy: Resources Biomass potential and utilization in Indonesia Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam Plantation Production (2009) in Indonesia and South Sumatera Province (SSP)

14 Biomass energy: Resources Technical potential of biomass (from forest and estate) Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam Production : 12 million Ha Total waste production : 1,15 billion ton/y (e.g. sugar mill, sawmill, rubber estate, palm mill oil, copra production, rice mill etc). Electricity production potential : 821 million MWh/y Generating Power potential : 94,000 MW

15 Biomass energy: Resources Technical potential of biomass (from forest and estate) M.H. Hasan, T.M.I. Mahlia, Hadi Nur, A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Indonesia, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 16 (2012) 2316– 2328

16 Biomass to energy technology Biomass products Prabir Basu, Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Practical Design and Theory, Elsevier (2010). Chemicals such as methanol, fertilizer, and synthetic fiber Energy such as heat Electricity Transportation fuel such as gasoline and diesel

17 Biomass to energy technology Biomass conversion into energy Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

18 Biomass to energy technology Example Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam

19 Biomass to energy technology Thermochemical conversion Direct Combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Prabir Basu, Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Practical Design and Theory, Elsevier (2010).

20 Biomass to energy technology Biomass gasification

21 Biomass to energy technology Biomass pyrolysis

22 Biomass to energy technology Biochemical conversion Digestion (anaerobic and aerobic) Fermentation Enzymatic or acid hydrolysis

23 Biomass to energy technology Example of biomass digestion Muhammad Faizal, 2011, BIOMASS POTENTIAL AND ITS UTILIZATION IN INDONESIA, The 8th Biomass Asia Workshop” Hanoi, Vietnam

24 Biomass to energy technology Biomass digestion Decompose biomass with microorganisms - Closed tanks known as anaerobic digesters - Produces methane (natural gas) and CO 2 Methane-rich biogas can be used as fuel or as a base chemical for bio- based products. Used in animal feedlots, and elsewhere

25 Biomass to energy technology Biomass digestion

26 Biomass to energy technology Biomass digestion process What kind of reactions occur in digester?

27 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fermentation Process scheme

28 Biomass to energy technology Biomass fermentation Process scheme 1.Convert biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock 2.Ferment biomass intermediates using biocatalysts -Microorganisms including yeast and bacteria; 3. Process fermentation product - Yield fuel-grade ethanol and other fuels, chemicals, heat and/or electricity

29 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Why?? First-generation biofuels are extracted from agricultural products: beetroot, rape seed, etc. They compete with foodstuffs. Concerns and constraints: 1.Compete with food crops 2.Expensive total production cost 3.Accelerating deforestation 4.The biomass feedstock may not be produced sustainably 5.Potentially has a negative impact on biodiversity R. Sims, M. Taylor, J. Saddler, W. Mabee From 1 st to 2 nd generation biofuel technologies, IEA

30 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Second-generation biofuels are produced using the inedible part of plants (straw, wood, plant waste). Unlike first-generation biofuels, they do not compete with the use of raw materials as food. They can be used directly by traditional vehicles and considerably reduce CO2 emissions.

31 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Air Liquide is developing Bioliq®, a process that produces second- generation biofuels using straw in three successive stages: 1.The first step in the process consists of high-temperature pyrolysis of the straw to convert it into synthetic crude: bioliqSynCrude®. 2.The second step consists of gasification, i.e. the transformation of the synthetic crude into synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. 3.Through several chemical reactions, the Bioliq® process then converts the synthesis gas into methanol or directly into biofuels. The Bioliq® process can produce 1 liter of diesel from 7 kg of straw.

32 Recent update 2 nd generation biofuel Second-generation biofuels present an energy and environmental advantage: they have a much better carbon footprint than other fuels: up to 90% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to mineral fuels and about 50% compared to first-generation biofuels.

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