What do you think we can do to get the flashlight to work?
What kind of action did you observe when the flashlight worked? Actions occur only when energy is available to make them happen. What kind of energy produced the flashlight action? Some kinds of energy can be stored until the energy is needed. Stored energy is energy ready to be used. Where was the energy needed to produce light stored in a flashlight?
Summary Energy- is always required to make things happen. There are many different forms of energy. One form of energy is electricity. Electric Energy, can be stored in a D-cell, but most people call it a battery. Source- a place to go where something is available or comes from. (D-Cell is a source)
Safety D-Cell energy is a very safe source of energy for us to work with. Electric energy that is in wall sockets is another story. Wall sockets have dangerous levels of electric energy. We will not put anything into wall sockets at any time!
YOUR CHALLENGE! Your challenge is find out how to get the electric energy from this electricity source, the D-Cell, to a light bulb.
This is the light bulb we’ll use. It is the kind of light bulb you might find in a flashlight. Let’s start by observing it. The Light Bulb
WHAT IS NEEDED TO LIGHT A LIGHT BULB? WRITE THIS QUESTION IN YOUR SCIENCE JOURNAL!
Glue in journal and make prediction about which circuit you think will light the bulb in the tiny box. As you explore during this investigation you’ll record your observations on this sheet.
TIME TO SHARE! To get the light to shine, where did you connect the wires to the D-Cell? Where did you connect the wires to the light bulb? What happens when you touch the wire to the glass part of the bulb?
Energy Converter Energy Converter- Anything that uses electric energy to do some kind of work. Convert- to change The light bulb converts (changes) electric energy that flows from the D-Cell into light energy.
Circuit Let’s look at the arrangements that produced light. Look specifically at the locations on the D-Cell and the bulb where they connected the wires. (Allow time for retesting.) Let’s look at drawing e on our handout. We’re going to trace a path taken by the electricity from the negative end of the D- Cell to the contact point on the base of the bulb, through the filament, to the silver-colored metal casing of the bulb, and back to the positive end of the D-Cell.
Vocabulary Electric Current- The flow of electric energy through the wires Circuit- The pathway through which electric current flows from the D-Cell to the light bulb and back to the cell. (The circuit must form a complete pathway from one end of the D- Cell back to the other end of the D-Cell for electricity to flow.) Components- The individual items in the circuit. (Wires transfer the energy from component to component. Our circuit has 2 components, a D-Cell and a light bulb.) Contact Points- The specific places that the wires need to touch the components.
Inside an Incandescent Bulb Filament- The part of the bulb that converts the electric energy into light energy. When electricity goes through the filament, it gets so hot that it glows. The glowing filament gives off light.
Bulb Circuit When electricity goes into the bulb through one contact point, flows through the filament, and goes out through a different contact point.
Questions to Ponder You can’t see electric energy. What evidence do you have that electricity is flowing in a circuit? When you put a D-cell into a circuit, what contact points do you use? How do you connect a bulb into a circuit, and what contact points are used to make a complete circuit to transfer energy? How can you get a bulb to light with only one wire?
Start a Class Chart What FORM of energy did you use to light the bulb? What was the SOURCE of the energy? What CONVERTED the energy? What ACTION did you observe or what FORM of energy did the light bulb change electric energy into? FORMSOURCECONVERTERACTION
Think! Pair! Share! Discuss in your group how the COMPONENTS in a CIRCUIT need to be connected in order for the bulb to light. Answer our Focus Question: What is needed to light a bulb? (in your journal) To light a bulb, there needs to be … Now get with a different partner and share your answer to the focus question with each other.
Read: “Edison See’s The Light” Edison’s light bulb was an energy converter. What does that mean? Describe the path taken by electricity through a light bulb.
Part 2: Converting Electric Energy What does a light bulb do in an electric circuit? Hold up a motor. This is a new COMPONENT called a motor. Your 1 st job will be to find out what this new component does in an electric circuit. Write this question in your journal: How is energy converted in a circuit with a motor?
Investigate Motors Each group will need 1 motor and 1 D-Cell. See if you can get your motor to start. What does the motor do in the circuit? The motor is an energy converter. What kind of energy conversion does the motor do?
This is a circuit base. This is how you put the D-Cell in the cell holder. Everyone will get 1 circuit base and insert D-Cell. You know how to use a motor to convert electric energy into motion energy. I have a new component for you to investigate. This is a switch. How can you use the switch to control the flow of electric current to the motor? Explore switches. Circuit- The pathway through which electric current flows
What did the switch do in your circuit? What does on and off mean? How can you summarize what a switch does in a circuit?
Answer the following question: How is energy converted in a circuit with a motor? (Remember to discuss all components in your circuit.) Add to our Energy Chart! FormSourceConverter Action ElectricD-Cellmotormotion
Focus Question What is needed to make a complete pathway for current to flow in a circuit? (Write on next page in journal) Hold up bag of test objects. I’ve been thinking about the motor circuit. The objects in this bag are made of all different materials. There is a plastic straw, rubber band, steel nail, and all other kinds of objects. Do you think you could use any of these objects to complete a circuit to make a motor run? (Make a plan with your group.)
Build Circuits You need a circuit bases and components to assemble a test system. If you are having trouble then think about setting up a D- Cell/motor/switch circuit and opening the switch.
When you have a circuit made… Get a bag of test objects. Take the plastic straw and the steel nail out of bag. Close the bag! Test these 2 objects to see if they can complete a circuit by bridging the open switch.
Conductor and Insulator What were the results with the nail and straw? An object like the steel nail, which made a closed circuit and lets the electric current flow, is called a CONDUCTER. (Makes a closed circuit and lets electric current flow) An object like the plastic straw, which does not close a circuit and doesn’t let electric current flow, is called an INSULATOR. (Doesn’t close a circuit and the electric current can’t flow.)
Sort Conductors and Insulators You will be sorting your bag of items into conductors and insulators. Make predictions 1 st !!!!
Foil: Sometimes it’s hard to decide if a material is a metal or not. Are aluminum foil and copper foil metal?