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Silviculture and Management Tools: Summary SRS-4158 TAV Synthesis September 11, 2012 - Atlanta.

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Presentation on theme: "Silviculture and Management Tools: Summary SRS-4158 TAV Synthesis September 11, 2012 - Atlanta."— Presentation transcript:

1 Silviculture and Management Tools: Summary SRS-4158 TAV Synthesis September 11, Atlanta

2 Topic defined Silviculture o The practice of establishing and maintaining forest health, diversity, and values in 3 settings, 1.pine forests with a longleaf component 2.land being restored to longleaf pine 3.agroforestry settings with a longleaf component Management tools o The mechanical, chemical, mathematical means to accomplish silvicultural activities.

3 Overview of comments Themes o We need tools that predict outcomes of management―MODELS Growth and yield models Fire effects models on growth, fuel, wildlife, etc. o We need tools that provide guidelines for management―GUIDELINES Decision support systems (i.e., management keys) Integration and synthesis of research results o These tools must be compatible with adaptive management. ◊◊◊ This is research ready to use by practitioners ◊◊◊

4 MODELS of management outcomes o Growth and yield models Finish this effort and update regularly Include economics Compare commercial appeal of longleaf and loblolly pines Describe products on a weight basis Provide versions for the small, as well as large landowner Compare loblolly and longleaf pines emphasizing the edge of the species’ range, and site quality (e.g., East TX, Piedmont) Compare plantation and natural stands of longleaf pine Pine straw production o Fire effects models Growth & mortality responses to season of fire Fire effects on growth & mortality by stand age Fire effects on growth & mortality by site (e.g., upland, flatwoods) Longer-term “fire and fire surrogate” studies Overview of comments

5 GUIDELINES compatible with adaptive management o 8 major activities o Response to variables Site quality/soil type (e.g., dry, mesic, wet sites) Setting (e.g., agroforestry, urban interface, private versus public land, upland versus flatwood sites) Landowner objectives (e.g., tree health/vigor/growth, pine straw, native warm season grasses, TES, wildlife, rare plants) Overview of comments P rescribed fire Fire surrogates Herbicide use Stand conversion Uneven-aged management Stocking levels and thinning Wildlife management Pine straw management ◊◊◊ This is research ready to use by practitioners ◊◊◊

6 Overview of comments ● GUIDELINES compatible with adaptive management o Decision support systems should contain, research ready to use by practitioners, response patterns or ranges, the mechanisms of response, and methods to monitor responses.

7 Silviculture specifics Prescribed fire and fire surrogates o Season/frequency to address competition obstacles o Season/frequency for the establishment of fire- adapted/ tolerant longleaf forests Plantation transition to uneven-aged stands Fire reintroduction in old stands Fire reintroduction that minimizes surface root damage Groundlayer establishment Steps to get an effective fuel system across a variety of fuel beds o Season/frequency for the maintenance of fire- adapted/ tolerant longleaf forests Temp./duration effects on longleaf bud & root system development Mountain longleaf pine Groundlayer maintenance sand pine saw palmetto cane hardwoods loblolly encroachment

8 Silviculture specifics Prescribed fire and fire surrogates o Wildlife management Fire size effects on wildlife Fire season/interval effects on rare plants and wildlife habitat o Urban interface Season/ignition pattern near urban areas How smoke differs between prescribed fire and wildfire o Fire surrogates Silvopasture settings Alternatives to fire in stands raked for pine straw Where there is a fire sensitivity (e.g., surface roots, urban areas, rare plants)

9 Silviculture specifics Herbicide use o Longleaf pine tolerance to herbicides o Formulations/applications to address obstacles Velpar ULW (granular) for turkey oak Midstory hardwood control Aggressive hardwood control (e.g., yaupon, sweetgum) Cost-effective invasive control (e.g., cogongrass, tallow tree) Control of saw palmetto, gallberry, titi, fetterbush, sand and pond pines o Sequence of treatments to prepare old agriculture fields, pastures, and turfgrass fields o Herbicides for site preparation Minimum impact with maximum effectiveness (e.g., spot and strip applications) Preservation and promotion of fuel cycle

10 Stocking levels and thinning o Planting densities that yield desired stocking levels Problem sites characterized by high mortality (e.g., wet, prolonged drought, high vegetative competition) Where loblolly encroachment is high and longleaf pine dominance is desired o Stocking levels and thinning for non-timber values Pine straw production o Delayed thinning o Thinning while sustaining pine straw production Wildlife needs (e.g., RCW, wild turkey) Biodiversity Native warm season grasses for cattle management Silviculture specifics

11 Stocking levels and thinning o Stocking levels and thinning for timber values Where loblolly encroachment is high, longleaf dominance is required, and desirable loblolly timber products can be harvested during intermediate thinning Old, overstocked longleaf pine stands

12 Silviculture specifics Stand conversion o Across a variety of restoration settings Loblolly pine  longleaf pine dominance Slash pine  longleaf pine dominance Stand conversion for shortleaf pine dominance Bedded sites o Descriptions of activities are needed Decision support system, “recipe book”, management key Amounts of overwood and underplanted seedlings Gap size Stand improvement o Mechanical control of understory and midstory o Overwood longleaf pines after seedlings are established Expectations beyond the bolting stage

13 Silviculture specifics Uneven-aged management (continuous canopy forestry) o How to manage mixed loblolly-longleaf stands o How to transition from a plantation to an uneven-aged stand Application of the Pro-B selection method for thinning that leads to an uneven-aged structure Pro-B for management of RCW habitat (now, it is mostly even-aged) Pro-B for management of recreation areas (these require minimal impact) o Gap size and distribution for group selection

14 Silviculture specifics Other management needs o Wildlife management Groundlayer management (“of equal importance as trees”) Fire size effects on wildlife Emerging challenges o No habitat change but “herps” population is decreasing o Management for multiple wildlife priorities (e.g., RCW and either quail or gopher tortoise) o Pine straw management Thinning regimes that sustain pine straw production Simultaneous groundlayer restoration Raking methods

15 Native warm season grasses ◦Setting-specific species choices (e.g., under pine straw management, pasture conversion) ◦Establishment methods Wood quality ◦Effect of setting (e.g., under silvopasture or pine straw management; plantation versus natural stands; by stocking, site, and state) ◦A need for markets Longleaf genetics ◦Effect on C-sequestration ◦G x E interaction effects on tree performance ◦Mountain pine Root system function ◦Nutrition needs of, and best soil types for longleaf pine ◦Compatibility between longleaf root system and soil (e.g., low OM sites, nutrient deficiencies) ◦Mycorrhizae ◦Surface longleaf roots and reintroduced fire Fundamental information gaps

16 Summary Research-based guidelines and models are needed to restore 3 longleaf settings. 1.pine forests with a longleaf component 2.land being restored to longleaf pine 3.agroforestry settings with a longleaf component 8 major silvicultural activities need attention. Recommendations will vary by site characteristics, landowner objectives, and obstacles. Guidelines will benefit from basic information about 4 topics, native warm season grasses and longleaf pine wood quality, genetics, and root system function. 1.Prescribed fire 2.Fire surrogates 3.Herbicide use 4.Stand conversion 5.Uneven-aged management 6.Stocking levels and thinning 7.Wildlife management 8.Pine straw management


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