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UK Biomass Resources Claire Johnson 24 th February 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "UK Biomass Resources Claire Johnson 24 th February 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 UK Biomass Resources Claire Johnson 24 th February 2005

2 Biomass: is anything derived from plant or animal matter and includes agricultural, forestry wastes/residues and energy crops. It can be used for fuel directly by burning or extraction of combustible oil.

3 Biomass has three major components Biopower Biopower Biofuels Biofuels Biobased Chemicals and Materials Biobased Chemicals and Materials

4 Biopower Is the direct combustion of biomass Is the direct combustion of biomass Has a low plant efficiency of 32%, comparable to coal 38% Has a low plant efficiency of 32%, comparable to coal 38% Efficiency drastically increases when biomass is used in a CCGT environment Efficiency drastically increases when biomass is used in a CCGT environment Co-firing also increases efficiency, and has the lowest implementation costs Co-firing also increases efficiency, and has the lowest implementation costs

5 Biofuel Three types Three types Bioethanol Bioethanol Biodiesel Biodiesel Biofuels from synthesis gas Biofuels from synthesis gas

6 Bioethanol: Created by converting the carbonhydrate portion of biomass into sugar Created by converting the carbonhydrate portion of biomass into sugar Via a fermentation process this is converted into ethanol Via a fermentation process this is converted into ethanol Ethanol is currently the most widely used biofuel Ethanol is currently the most widely used biofuel

7 Biodiesel Produced by combining organically derived oils are combined with alcohol- either ethanol or methanol, with a catalyst Produced by combining organically derived oils are combined with alcohol- either ethanol or methanol, with a catalyst Can be used blended with traditional fuel, or neat Can be used blended with traditional fuel, or neat Oilseed rape most common biomass Oilseed rape most common biomass

8 Biofuels from synthesis gas Biomass can be gasified to produce a synthesis gas- syngas Biomass can be gasified to produce a synthesis gas- syngas From this hydrogen can be recovered From this hydrogen can be recovered Or syngas can be converted to methanol Or syngas can be converted to methanol

9 Financial Support Market support from Renewables Obligations and tax exemptions for transport fuels Market support from Renewables Obligations and tax exemptions for transport fuels Range of R+D Programmes and Capital Grant Measures Range of R+D Programmes and Capital Grant Measures £66M Bio-energy Capital Grants £66M Bio-energy Capital Grants £29M Energy Crops Scheme £29M Energy Crops Scheme £3.5M Infrastructure Scheme £3.5M Infrastructure Scheme £10M Clear Skies (Domestic) £10M Clear Skies (Domestic) £30M Advanced Energy from Waste Demonstrators £30M Advanced Energy from Waste Demonstrators £2M/yr DTI R+D plus University funding £2M/yr DTI R+D plus University funding

10 Case Study: ELEAN Power Station Largest straw burning power station in the world Largest straw burning power station in the world 38MW, generating 270GWh per year 38MW, generating 270GWh per year £60M project cost £60M project cost Annual fuel demand is 200,000 tonnes Annual fuel demand is 200,000 tonnes Main fuel is straw, but has successfully burned oilseed rape and miscanthus. Can run on up to 10%natural gas. Main fuel is straw, but has successfully burned oilseed rape and miscanthus. Can run on up to 10%natural gas.

11 Highly efficient, steam generated at 540°C and 92 bar pressure Highly efficient, steam generated at 540°C and 92 bar pressure Highest load factor of any renewable energy plant Highest load factor of any renewable energy plant Sister company Anglia Straw produces 50% of fuel requirements Sister company Anglia Straw produces 50% of fuel requirements Remaining fuel is obtained from local farmers Remaining fuel is obtained from local farmers Recently won the government’s ‘Green Apple’ award for good environmental practice Recently won the government’s ‘Green Apple’ award for good environmental practice

12 Pros and Cons Advantages Unlike other renewables can be stored Unlike other renewables can be stored Nearly carbon neutral Nearly carbon neutral Can be mixed with existing technology Can be mixed with existing technologyDisadvantages Large volume of land required Large volume of land required Crops may have low public opinion Crops may have low public opinion Increased volume of lorry transportation through rural areas Increased volume of lorry transportation through rural areas

13 Assumptions That energy demand continues to rise at a steady rate That energy demand continues to rise at a steady rate G.M. crops are not considered G.M. crops are not considered Energy crops provide the majority of the biomass~65%, the remainder coming from straw and woodland Energy crops provide the majority of the biomass~65%, the remainder coming from straw and woodland CCGT are favoured over direct combustion CCGT are favoured over direct combustion

14 Currently 17 million hectares of agricultural holding in UK Currently 17 million hectares of agricultural holding in UK 3.5 million hectares of set-a-side land 3.5 million hectares of set-a-side land It will take ~10 years to establish enough energy crops to make biomass economically viable It will take ~10 years to establish enough energy crops to make biomass economically viable 1 tonne of energy crops= 14-18GJ 1-2tonnes/ha/yr 1 tonne of energy crops= 14-18GJ 1-2tonnes/ha/yr 1 tonne of wood = ~20GJ 10tonnes/ha/yr 1 tonne of wood = ~20GJ 10tonnes/ha/yr

15 RCEP Biomass Projections

16 Land Required

17 Projections PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ PJ – requiring 2.5millionha, 71% of set-a-side land PJ – requiring 2.5millionha, 71% of set-a-side land

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