Presentation on theme: "1 Chemistry II: Properties of Water and pH Nancy Dow Kathrine Alexander Gulf Coast State CollegePanhandle Area Educational Consortium 5230 West Highway."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemistry II: Properties of Water and pH Nancy Dow Kathrine Alexander Gulf Coast State CollegePanhandle Area Educational Consortium 5230 West Highway 98753 West Boulevard Panama City, Florida 32401Chipley, Florida 32428 850-769-1551877-873-7232 www.gulfcoast.edu Biology Partnership (A Teacher Quality Grant )
2 Pre-test Breaks Q & A boards Asking questions Our approach to the standards & to this lesson
3 Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards SC.912.L.18.12 Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth’s suitability as an environment for life; cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent. (Moderate) Benchmark Clarifications –Students will explain the properties of water at a conceptual level. –Students will explain how the properties make water essential for life on Earth. Content Limits Items referring to the properties of water are limited to hydrogen bonding, polarity, cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent. Items may address adhesion but will not assess adhesion
Cover page Write the book title - PROPERTIES OF WATER Sketch and color a water molecule In the Upper right corner, write your name
PAGE ONE (front side) Write the Page title, POLARITY, centered at the top of the page. Draw and color (Oxygen-RED and Hydrogen- BLUE) water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds Write, bullet, and answer these questions: –What is meant by polarity? –Which end of the water molecule attracts most of the electrons and acts negative? –Which end acts positive? –How do water molecules act like “little magnets”?
11 Water is a ‘Polar Covalent’ molecule- (charges at opposite sides of molecule) ‘POLAR’ means an unequal distribution of the charge. H2OH2O
14 We’ve heard that wax or oils repel water. But that isn’t true. Water is so attracted to other water molecules that anything between them is squeezed out of the way.
15 States of Water Only substance to that exists free in nature in all three states
16 PROPERTIES OF WATER WATER IS THE ‘UNIVERSAL SOLVENT’---It dissolves other “polar” molecules– a molecule that can attract a water molecule. “Like dissolves like” “polar dissolves polar” WATER MOLECULES ARE COHESIVE AND ADHESIVE---Transport of water in organisms – example: Trees –Cohesion- a property of like molecules sticking together (water attracted to other water molecules” –Adhesion- the tendency of dissimilar particles to cling to one another WATER HAS A HIGH SURFACE TENSION----Water bugs walk on the surface of water FROZEN WATER (ICE) IS LESS DENSE THAN LIQUID WATER SO IT FLOATS---Keeps organisms alive in the bottom of a frozen lake WATER HAS THE ABILTIY TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE– water temperature effects coastal communities temperature
PAGE ONE (Backside) Write the Page title, UNIVERSAL SOLVENT, centered at the top of the page. Draw and color a solution including solvent and a solute Write, bullet, and answer these questions: –What is a solvent? –Why is water called a universal solvent? –What is a solute? –Which type of molecules, polar or nonpolar, dissolves in water? –Are materials that dissolve in water hydrophobic or hydrophilic? solution
18 Universal Solvent Since unlike charges attract, the negative end of water will be attracted to the positive sodium ion. The positive end of water will be attracted to the negative chloride ion. Since water is always in motion, it will pull on the ionic compound and move the ions away from each other. This dissolves the ionic compound.
19 Many compounds dissolve in water. A solution is formed when one substance dissolves in another. –A solution is a homogeneous mixture. –Solvents dissolve other substances. –Solutes dissolve in a solvent.
21 Common Misconceptions Students often thinks that all solutes are solids and all solvent as are liquids. Correcting the misconception –Solutions can involve different states of matter
PAGE TWO (Front side) Write the Page title, COHESION, centered at the top of the page. Sketch and color the water droplet Write, bullet, and answer these questions: –What is cohesion? –Cohesion produces _____________ tension as the water molecules hold tightly together. –How do living things like insects use surface tension?
PAGE TWO (Backside) Write the Page title, ADHESION, centered at the top of the page. Sketch and color the picture below. Adhesion pulls the liquid up the sides of the straw (capillarity). Write, bullet, and answer these questions: –Define adhesion. –Adhesion produces an effect called ______________ action when you place a straw in a liquid –Explain how adhesion and cohesion help plants move materials.
24 Hydrogen bonds are responsible for three important properties of water. Cohesion - water molecules “stick” to each other Adhesion - water molecules “stick” to other substances
25 Cohesion Water’s tendency to cling together Water in space When the negative end of a water molecule attracts the positive end of another water molecule, and the molecules stick together, this is called cohesion.
28 Adhesion Adhesion, or capillary action, is when water molecules are attracted to other substances with a negative or positive charges. This is why water "climbs" up a piece of paper or a straw above the surface level of the water. This figure shows water adhesion
29 WATER: STRONG COHESIVENESS Because of the cohesive properties of water, trees such as the giant sequoia are able to transport water molecules from the soil to their leaves 300 ft. above. As each water molecule evaporates, it pulls additional water up through the tree because of the “sticky- ness” of the hydrogen bonds that link the water molecules. Water molecule released into the atmosphere 300 ft. Water molecule pulled into root system Water molecules pulled upward 6-ft.-tall man
30 Phloem and Xylem -Phloem-Transport sugars and molecules created by the plant. Transports food made during photosynthesis. Xylem-System of tubes in a plant that transport water and dissolved minerals. The xylem distributes the water throughout the plant.
31 Surface Tension The cohesive forces between liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon known as surface tension. The molecules at the surface do not have other like molecules on all sides of them and consequently they cohere more strongly to those directly associated with them on the surface. This forms a surface "film" that allows insects to walk on water
32 WATER: HIGH SURFACE TENSION Pressure applied to water surface “ V”-shaped water molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds. The bonds are just strong enough to give water a surface tension with net-like properties. Hydrogen bond
LAST PAGE (Inside of back cover) Write the Page title, INSULATION, centered at the top of the page. Sketch and color the ice crystal. Write, bullet, and answer these questions: –When is water the densest? –Explain why ice floats? –How is a lake or river that freezes over helpful to the organisms in the water?
35 WATER: LOWER DENSITY WHEN FROZEN Water is densest at 4°C
36 Expansion of water contributes to the fitness of the environment for life: Prevents deep bodies of water from freezing solid from the bottom up. Since ice is less dense, it forms on the surface first. As water freezes it releases heat to the water below and insulates it. Makes the transitions between seasons less abrupt. As water freezes, hydrogen bonds form releasing heat. As ice melts, hydrogen bonds break absorbing heat.
38 WATER: HIGH HEAT CAPACITY 4 Molecules that make up sand, on the other hand, don’t have so many hydrogen bonds, so the heat of the sun just increases the temperature. 1 Heat (energy) from the sun disrupts some of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. 2 New hydrogen bonds are formed almost as quickly as they are disrupted. 3 Because heat energy from the sun is used up breaking and re-forming hydrogen bonds, the water temperature doesn’t increase by much. Newly formed bond Disrupted bond Sun Sixty percent of your body is water. This helps you to maintain a relatively constant body temperature.
39 Other unique properties of water High boiling point - 100 o C Low freezing point- 0 o C Viscosity increases as its temperature is lowered A relatively high density to support animals with no or delicate skeletal systems Latent heat of evaporation – highest of all substances Latent heat of fusion- highest except ammonia Transparency – relatively great
Why is water so important to living organisms? Water acts as a solvent to provide a liquid environment for biochemical reactions. Water is also a transporter of nutrients, waste products, blood, and materials within cell Water dissolves polar compounds and does not dissolve nonpolar compounds. This is important for both biochemical reactions and crucial hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions in protein folding. Water is an important reactant in certain biochemical reactions such as electrolysis reactions and the first step of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Water has a high specific heat capacity to facilitate better maintenance of internal temperature and the usage of evaporation to cool down.
41 Follow up Q/A Board Problem solving issues in class Additional activities Properties of Water Lab H.O.T. Water Tutorial Wonder of Water 6.5 Cloze
42 Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards SC.912.P.8.11 Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium ion and hydroxyl concentration and pH. No specific Biology standard for pH but need to understand because it is referred to in the enzymes standard as well as in reference to aquatic systems
Bell Ringer Acid Bases and pH- flipped classroom Acid and base rap Acid and base Music video
44 The pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. Acids and bases A scale with values ranging from below 0 to above 14 is used to measure pH. More acidic Neutral More basic
45 Substances with a pH below 7 are acidic. An acid is any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H + ) in water. Acids and bases more acidic stomach acid pH between 1 and 3
A neutral solution has a pH of 7. pure water pH 7
47 Substances with a pH above 7 are basic. A base is any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH - ) in water. Acids and bases bile pH between 8 and 9 more basic
48 It is a logarithmic scale, based on powers of 10, so that 1 pH unit change equals a 10 fold change in H+ ion concentration! A pH of 6 is ten times more acidic than a pH of 7.
49 Blood THE pH SCALE ACIDSBASES H + ionWaterOH – ion Bases are fluids that have a greater proportion of OH – ions to H + ions. OH – ions bind with H + ions, neutralizing acids. Strong bases are caustic to your skin. Bases can be found in many household cleaners. Bases are generally bitter in taste and soapy. Acids are fluids that have a greater proportion of H + ions to OH – ions. H + ions are very reactive. Strong acids are corrosive to metals. Acids break down food in your digestive tract. Acids are generally sour in taste. Beer Soda Battery acid Coffee Water Ammonia Bleach Baking soda Soda, with a pH of about 3.0, is 100,000 times more acidic than a glass of water, with a pH of 8.0! 07141312111098654321 Free H+ Free OH- pH scale is logarithmic – using powers of ten
51 ACIDS AND BASES Acids=Free Hydrogens Bases=Free Hydroxides
52 pH value times acidity or alkalinity exceeds that of pure water (7.0) Acidic 010,000,000 11,000,000 2100,000 310,000 41,000 5100 610 Neutral 71 810 9100 101,000 1110,000 12100,000 131,000,000 Alkaline 1410,000,000
How does pH affect enzymes? A change in pH disrupts an enzyme's shape and structure. In general enzyme have a pH optimum. However the optimum is not the same for each enzyme. Different enzymes might have very different pH optima Green- enzyme pepsin which degrades proteins (protease) in the stomach Red- enzyme carbonic anhydrase that works in the neutral pH of your cytosol.
55 Buffers : A Mechanism to prevent pH changes—to keep the pH within normal limits because they take up excess hydrogen ions (Examples: Tums or Rolaids are buffers for stomach acidity).--- Our body has buffer systems (Homeostatic mechanisms)---Example: Buffers to keep our blood pH at 7.3 - 7.4