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Www.sustoil.org 9 th June 2010 Optimisation of oil crops agronomy and oil yield and utilisation of by-products Title Katerina Stamatelatou Speaker FORTH.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.sustoil.org 9 th June 2010 Optimisation of oil crops agronomy and oil yield and utilisation of by-products Title Katerina Stamatelatou Speaker FORTH."— Presentation transcript:

1 9 th June 2010 Optimisation of oil crops agronomy and oil yield and utilisation of by-products Title Katerina Stamatelatou Speaker FORTH Institute

2 Contents Improving the production and yield of oil crops oilseed rape (FERA, UK) David Turley and Ruth Leybourne sunflower (CETIOM, France) Alain Quinsac and Francis Flénet Utilization of by-products Chemicals from supercritical CO 2 extraction (UYork, UK) Ray Marriot Biomaterial production (INPT, France) Antoine Rouilly and Carlos Vaca-Garcia Methane production from residues (FORTH, Greece) Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou and Gerasimos Lyberatos

3 Contents Improving the production and yield of oil crops oilseed rape (FERA, UK) David Turley and Ruth Leybourne sunflower (CETIOM, France) Francis Flénet and Alain Quinsac Utilization of by-products Chemicals from supercritical CO 2 extraction (UYork, UK) Ray Marriot Biomaterial production (INPT, France) Antoine Rouilly and Carlos Vaca-Garcia Methane production from residues (FORTH, Greece) Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou and Gerasimos Lyberatos

4 EU largest producer in the world 18,000,000 t Average EU yield: t/ha Other producers China 11,000,000 t (1.8 t/ha) Canada 9,500,000 t (1.8 t/ha) India 6,500,000 t (0.8 t/ha) OSR production: 70% of all oilseeds within EU27 Oilseed rape (OSR)

5 EU average yields 800,000 t

6 Selective breeding, genetic manipulation, better management practices could lead to a yield of 6.5 t/ha Develop improved cultivars Optimise the seed number per unit area Increase the solar radiation efficiency (reduce interference from flowering canopy, increase leaf area – photosynthetic area) Bring flowering forward to cooler conditions to extend the pod filling period Manage fungal pathogens with agrochemical inputs Address sulphur deficiency (atmospheric depositions have been decreased) Maintaining rotational gaps: grow 1 year in 3 or more Increasing yield of OSR/ha

7 Field yields of up to 5 t/ha have been achieved 6.5 t/ha is not unrealistic ! (Berry & Spink 2006) Doubling yield in countries currently above EU average = extra 12,400,000 t (76% increase) without increasing land demand Increase in yield is not at the expense of oil content Conclusions for increasing OSR yields

8 Contents Improving the production and yield of oil crops oilseed rape (FERA, UK) David Turley and Ruth Leybourne sunflower (CETIOM, France) Francis Flénet and Alain Quinsac Utilization of by-products Chemicals from supercritical CO 2 extraction (UYork, UK) Ray Marriot Biomaterial production (INPT, France) Antoine Rouilly and Carlos Vaca-Garcia Methane production from residues (FORTH, Greece) Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou and Gerasimos Lyberatos

9 Sunflower Sunflower is mainly cultivated in Southern Europe: Romania ( ha in 2007) Spain ( ha) Bulgaria ( ha) France ( ha) Hungary ( ha) and Italy ( ha) Strategies to increase seed yield: increase the seed yield potential decrease the effect of water stress, diseases and other limiting factors

10 Increase the potential seed yield Potential seed yield increased by 40 % from 1970 to 2000 in France, due to : an increase in harvest index a greater efficiency to intercept solar radiation per unit of leaf area No obvious increase in seed oil content was observed Further improvement is possible: Biomass allocation, light interception through the canopy architecture, phenology

11 Decrease the effect of limiting factors Water stress Increase the drought tolerance of varieties so that they adapt more efficiently to water availability Increase the irrigation of sunflower Convince farmers to follow recommendations (seeding, sowing density, sowing date etc) Diseases Resistance breeding, chemical application, cultural practices (no excessive N fertilization, wide row spacing, machinery movement along the different growing areas)

12 Decrease the effect of limiting factors Some weeds are not controlled by pre-plant or pre- emergence herbicides Introduce herbicide-tolerant sunflowers to make possible a post-emergent weed control option Insects (problem in Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania) Chemical insecticides, alternative pest management strategies (rotating crops, altering planting dates, increasing natural enemies, sex pheromones…) Slugs, birds and game animals: yield loss in France t/ha Seed treatments, sowing practices, better understanding of the biology of animals

13 Conclusions for increasing the sunflower seed yield The best combination of decisions must be taken to obtain high yields at low costs with little impact on environment. Distribution of crops, machinery movement, crop rotation, variety choice, cultural practices and chemical applications Breeding of new cultivars Focus on seed yield potential, drought tolerance, resistance to diseases and insects

14 Contents Improving the production and yield of oil crops oilseed rape (FERA, UK) David Turley and Ruth Leybourne sunflower (CETIOM, France) Francis Flénet and Alain Quinsac Utilization of by-products Chemicals from supercritical CO 2 extraction (UYork, UK) Ray Marriot Biomaterial production (INPT, France) Antoine Rouilly and Carlos Vaca-Garcia Methane production from residues (FORTH, Greece) Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou and Gerasimos Lyberatos

15 Extraction Strategy Densification Digestion Fermentation CO 2 Extraction Functional extracts Alkanes, wax esters, sterols and polycosanols

16 Extraction Economic Factors Overall extract yield (kg/kg raw material) Typically 1-3% for straw/husk/leaf Extraction column loading (bulk density kg/m 3 ) 650kg/m 3 should be achievable by pelleting Extraction time (kg CO 2 /kg raw material) Typical extraction time: 2-3 h Rapid load/unload mechanisms essential Plant capacity

17 Effect of Bulk Density

18 Effect of Plant Scale Brunner,G., Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 2005, 67, 21–33 Typical breakdown of operating costs for CO 2 extraction

19 Conclusions for the potential chemical recovery from supercritical CO 2 extraction Densification and extraction technologies are commercially available and can be adapted to meet almost any biorefinery capacity. Selective extraction of valuable chemical is possible but the yield will be low Densification of raw material is essential Economy of scale has been demonstrated with other raw materials Continuous extraction could provide a quantum shift in costs

20 Contents Improving the production and yield of oil crops oilseed rape (FERA, UK) David Turley and Ruth Leybourne sunflower (CETIOM, France) Francis Flénet and Alain Quinsac Utilization of by-products Chemicals from supercritical CO 2 extraction (UYork, UK) Ray Marriot Biomaterial production (INPT, France) Antoine Rouilly and Carlos Vaca-Garcia Methane production from residues (FORTH, Greece) Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou and Gerasimos Lyberatos

21 Biomaterial Production Huge potential resource e.g. for sunflower: stem 25% DM, seeds 30% DM European production of sunflower seeds in 2007: 5.6 Mt Potential production of sunflower straw: 4.7 Mt/y Today straw is used only as soil enrichment Soy or rapeseed straws are not rigid enough to be harvested, BUT sunflower straws can be used (good fiber quality and high pectin content) Sunflower stalk consists of the pith and the bark (husk), easily being separated through crushing

22 Use of sunflower straw fiber Pulping of sunflower straw Suitable for cardboard Suitable for particle boards if depithed or mixed with poplar wood particles Rapeseed straws: few works on fiber characterisation

23 Use of pith Low density materials No requirement for additives or mold-drying processes Excellent mechanical properties are related to water (used in the forming process) Insulating material Pectin (food and cosmetic industry) High anhydrogalacturonic acid content (77-85%) Low acetyl content ( %) Firm gels with Ca but sensitive to pH

24 Aqueous extraction of sunflower oil An interesting alternative to classical oil extraction One stage twin screw extraction. Solvent free Seeds and fibers are added separately The whole plant can be also used. 70% extraction yield The liquid phase is an emulsion stabilised by sunflower proteins (directly used in industrial applications or transformed to fatty acids and fatty esters) The cake meal can be used to make biodegradable materials

25 Thermo-molding of the cake meal Suitable for: Animal feed Pellets for energy production Thermo-molding (high temperature and pressure) application Biodegradable and value-added agro-materials Proteins are transformed and give mechanical resistance to the panels Fibers ensure the structure of the panels

26 Conclusions for biomaterial production Stalks of sunflowers can be used to make cardboards or particle boards Pith can be used for light density materials and for extracting the pectin New aqueous oil extraction Use of the whole plant Fibrous cake meal can be used for new agro-materials

27 Contents Improving the production and yield of oil crops oilseed rape (FERA, UK) David Turley and Ruth Leybourne sunflower (CETIOM, France) Francis Flénet and Alain Quinsac Utilization of by-products Chemicals from supercritical CO 2 extraction (UYork, UK) Ray Marriot Biomaterial production (INPT, France) Antoine Rouilly and Carlos Vaca-Garcia Methane production from residues (FORTH, Greece) Katerina Stamatelatou, Georgia Antonopoulou and Gerasimos Lyberatos

28 Methane production from residues Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of organic material by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen.

29 AD of Solid Waste Feedstock Yield (m 3 CH 4 /kgVS) Yield (m 3 CH 4 /ton ww) Slaughterhouse waste (industrial waste) OFMSW Energy crops Straws, sugar beet tops (crops residues) Pig manure Cow manure

30 Biogas utilization Biogas Desulphurisation Gas treatment Reforming Compression Boiler CHP Fuel Cell Pressure Tank Electricity Heat Electricity Heat Fuel

31 AD of energy crops ExampleReidling, Austria ADWet, two-stage Feedstock30% pig manure 70% energy crops (maize) and residues from vegetable processing CHP operation (2005) Input energy crops11,000 t/y Input manure+leachates 7,300 t/y Sale electricity8,030 MWh/y Sale heat1,600 MWh/y ExampleStrem, Austria ADWet, two-stage Feedstockenergy crops (maize, grass, clover) CHP operation ( ) Input maize crop5,940 t/y Input grass crop2,181 t/y Input clover crop1,374 t/y Sale electricity4,153 MWh/y Sale heat1,697 MWh/y

32 Residues - Characteristics Residues Characteristics rapeseedsunflower Dry matter (wt%)9187 Moisture (wt%)913 Volatile Solids (wt% dry basis)9190 Ash (wt% dry basis)9.410 Chemical Oxygen Demand (g O 2 /g dry basis) Methane yield (L/kg VS)247 ( max 411) 280 (max 404) Biogas yield (m 3 /t feedstock) m 3 biogas yields kWh (total) energy kWh (electrical) energy

33 Cost benefit analysis (on annual basis) residuesrapeseedsunflower quantity (t/y)6,000 CHP (kW el ) costminmaxminmax investment (€)916,7912,291,9781,071,2692,678,172 operating cost(€)73,710165,84886,130193,793 sell electricity (€)534,398624,443 sell heat (€)262,080306,240 1 m 3 biogas yields kWh (total) energy kWh (electrical) energy Investment: 2,000-5,000 €/kW Operating: € ct/kWh el Electricity production value 14.5 € ct/kWh el Thermal energy value 4 € ct/kWh heat Fertilizer value

34 Conclusion for methane production Residues can be used for methane production Profit is possible from: Utilization of methane for electrical and thermal energy Utilization of the digested waste as fertilizer Methane production is profitable if the CHP unit operates on an annual basis. Other feedstocks should be used in combination with rapeseed and sunflower residues to secure a continuous feeding (other agricultural wastes, manure etc.)

35 Acknowledgements Sustoil was funded under the 7 th framework programme


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