Short-lived climate forcers Short life spans Warming agents: black carbon (soot particles), methane, tropospheric ozone, and HCFs Cooling agents: sulfate, nitrate particles, organic carbon (OC) These are also toxic air pollutants to human health and ecosystem short- lived climate forcing pollutants (SLCPs)
SLCP and GWP (on mass-basis) SpeciesLife timeGWP, 20 years Additional concern Emission sources CO 2 ~100 yrs1NoneCombustion CH 4 12 yrs62O 3 productionAgriculture, ruminants, landfill, mining, etc. Trop. O 3 ~days to weeks -Crop and health effects Formed in atmosphere (VOC, NOx, CO) VOC~days4.9O 3 production Health effects Various sources (combustion, evap., etc.) BC~days2000Health effectsIncomplete combustion (diesel, cookstoves, etc.) HFCs, HCFCs ~years– >200 yrs 500- 9000 ODSAC, refrigerators, industry (foam, aluminium) Source: IPCC (1990, 1995, 1996); Bond et al. (2004)
SLCPs from Agricultural Sector Emission of SLCP from agricultural activities Potential co-benefit and opportunities of co-control in agricultural sector in Asia Kim Oanh, 2013
Emission from agricultural sector Sub-category covered Relevant species Remarks Global (Tg/year) 1. Rice cultivation CH 4 CH 4 emission from anaerobic process (methanogenic bacteria) 36.5 2. Live-stock management a. Enteric fermentation CH 4 CH 4 as by-product of livestock digestive process 99 b. Manure management CH 4 NH 3 and N 2 O CH 4 from decomposition of manure during storage and application N 2 O and NH 3 from excess N content in manure through the N cycle CH 4 : 11.4 NH 3 :16.5 N 2 O: 2.3 3. Soil a. Fertilizer/urea application NH 3 N-fertilizer application (volatile to air) 22.5 b. Direct emission from managed soil N 2 O, NOx Increase in available N enhances nitrification/denitrification emission N 2 O: 2.6 NOx: 4.6 c. Liming application CO 2 Due to addition of lime for soil treatment 111
Sub-category covered Relevant pollutants Remarks Global (Tg/year)* 4. Biomass open burning a. Crop residue open burning Combustion products: SO 2, NOx, CO, NH 3, NMVOC, PM 10, PM 2.5, BC, OC, CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O Field burning of crop residue burned after harvest BC: 0.9 OC: 4.25 b. Forest fire (related to agro activities) Open burning of vegetation biomass and peat soil in forests BC:2.4 OC: 20.75 5. Agriculture machinery (tractors etc.) Fossil fuel combustion in agricultural machineries NA * Extracted from EDGAR for 2007 GHG and air pollution from agricultural sector Other sources: land-use change (forest crop land urban areas) Kim Oanh, 2013
Agriculture CH 4 : control emission from livestock (anaerobic digestion of cattle and pig manure) and aeration of flooded paddy) BC: ban field burning Percentage change in anthropogenic emissions of pollutants in 2030 relative to 2005 in scenarios of CH 4, BC and CH 4 + BC measures applications Agricultural measure Kim Oanh, 2013
Agro-residue field burning Deliberate burning of various types of crop residue that occurs on-site (field): Rice straw, Corn, Cassava, Groundnut/soil bean, Cotton/jute, Potato, Sorghum, others Purpose: for faster crop rotation and to ease the harvesting (e.g. sugarcane) Increasing trend: burning is projected to increase in the short and medium terms Kim Oanh, 2014
Large emission from agro- residue field burning Uncontrolled and largely incomplete combustion: large emission Pollutants: PM with BC & OC and gases (CO, NOx, VOC, SO 2, NH 3, etc.), semi-VOC: pesticides, PAHs, dioxins Climate forcers: CO 2, BC, OC, CH 4, and ozone precursors (NOx, HC, CO) Large amount of emission from crop residue field burning in Asia but is not well quantified
Rice straw field burning in Asia and emission, Gg/y PollutantsIndiaPhilippineThailandChinaIndonesia RS burned, Tg13.910.220.324.143.5 Portion burned % of total RS 1495682484 CO 2 16,25311,85015,36018,95252,614 PM 2.5 144105108330 BC & OC6.5 & 3922 & 132 CH 4 13.49.7125382 NMHC44.532.591304 CO3862821,2101,5387,172 N2ON2O0.780.573 NO x 352529.743.589 PAH0.210.15 Sources: Gadde et al. 2009; Kanabkaew and Kim Oanh, 2010; Zhang et al. 2008; Permadi and Kim Oanh, 2012 Kim Oanh, 2014
Policy approaches for field burning emission control Command and control (CAC): ban/restriction Market based instruments (MBI) Subsidy on appropriate technologies/equipment for harvesting and residue collection Markets for the collected residue: bring in additional income to farmers from selling it Educative/persuasive: Raising awareness: health effects of burning smoke, mushroom farming Good practices of sustainable residue management Community participatory to promote non-burning
Emission reduction of field burning Develop and implement non-burning alternatives of residue Change in harvesting technologies Onsite treatment (incorporate crop residue) Develop methods for residue collection Burn only when it is dry and good dispersion Kim Oanh, 2013
NON-BURNING AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THAILAND (by Dares Kittiyopas, UNEP meeting, 2014) Development of soil preparation: incorporate crop residue Utilization of crop residue Used Microbial Activator Super LDD2 to accelerate the decomposition of crop residue
Others measures used in Thailand Produce of the organic fertilizer (organic compost) Used as animal fodder, or renewable energy Other purpose: soil mulching material in vegetable production Educative and regulation (banning) Source: Dares Kittiyopas (2014)
Agroresidue for biomass briquettes/pellets: clean cooking and less open burning Briquetting: loose biomass residues (sawdust, straw or rice husk) are converted into high density solid blocks Biomass briquettes/pellets (very small briquettes) used for cooking and industrial combustion Sawdust and other woody residues have lignin good for briquetting Dry agricultural residues can be used alone but work better when mixed with woody materials.
Facilitator/discussion An introduction to reducing SLCPs in the agricultural sector (approx. twenty minutes;) Taking question and answers about experiences with SLCPs in the agricultural sector in Asia (approx. ten minutes); A facilitated discussion of experiences, lessons, and good practices with participants (approx.. one hour); A facilitated synthesis over the key findings from the discussion with ideas for the way forward (approx.. thirty minutes); and Nominating a rapporteur to report findings back to the plenary
Discussion points 1. Specific sources and SLCPs to be priority of control in Asia 2. Experiences with SLCPs in the agricultural sector in Asia 3. Challenges and lessons learned 4. Good practices
1.Suggestions on actions and implementation plans at national and regional level 2.Suggestions on stakeholder engagement from inception to implementation 3.Suggestions on cross-linkages with other CCAC initiatives: Waste management (agricultural wastes) Household cooking and domestic heating (agroresidue to fuel) Agroresidue waste management strategies Financing mitigation of SLCPs (financing for improved agricultural practices) etc. Suggestions from the Group!
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