Arab Chieftains - Stole semen to breed mares Ivanov (Russia) 1900 - - Developed methods as we know today - Most work was with horses but did some cattle and pig work First US AI Cooperative - 1937 Dairy cooperatives merge and form large companies that dominate cattle AI industry - 1960’s to present All turkey’s bred AI - 1960’s to present Expansion of swine and horse AI - 1990’s
Genetic improvement of livestock Disease control mechanism Possible to increase fertility Decrease breeding expense
Current Status of US Industry Dairy Cattle - 7 million (50%) Beef Cattle - 1.3 million (3%) Swine - 20 - 30% Turkey - 100% Horses - Increasing rapidly
Genetic Improvement Wide spread availability of genetically superior sires Disease Control Injured studs available More valid stud proofs Reduced danger from studs Cost - relatively cheap
Estrus detection must be good Handle and care for semen Record Keeping Time involved - Restraining and inseminating cow Training required to handle semen and breed cow
Semen Collection Sexual arousal using Sight, sound, smell, touch Best mount - Live Alternative mount - dummies available for: Stallions Boars Bulls
Electro-ejaculation Useful if male won’t or can’t mount Get urine often Poorer quality ejaculate Used in rams and beef bulls Massage Method Stimulate by rectal massage Seminal vesicles Vas deferens
Artificial Vagina Temperature Bull, stallion, ram at 45°C Pressure Friction Lubrication essential
Extenders include: NutrientsGlucose, fructose Cold shock prevention Buffer Milk, skim-milk, egg yolk Citrate, Tris The buffer componentAntibiotics Inhibit bacterial growth Increase volume Cryoprotectant glycerol Extend then Freeze!
After collected and extended, semen is put into a semen straw. That straw is placed into a Liquid Nitrogen Tank. Each tank contains a Cane, which consists of Goblets containing the semen straws themselves. Make sure that the correct procedure for freezing semen in a liquid nitrogen is followed.
Use the procedures recommended by the semen supplier!!! 35°C water for 30 - 60 seconds Ice water for 3 minutes Pocket thaw Be very careful when removing straw from Nitrogen Tank Thawing
Time of insemination Cow - 12 hours after observed in standing heat (AM - PM rule) Sow - 24 and 36 hours after first seen in estrus Gilt - 12 and 24 hours after first seen in estrus Sheep -12 to 18 hours after first seen in estrus Horses -Every second day beginning on day 3 of heat Insemination Protocol Rectal/ Vaginal Vaginal Once you have collected the semen and detected estrus of the female, you can begin to inseminate.
Pipette with syringe Lube Semen Straw Gloves (Arms Length)
Begin by restraining the animal. This will protect the animal and the technician during the procedure. STEP 1:
The inseminator places their arm into the females rectum, using plenty of lubrication, and removes all feces. This will allow the inseminator to palpate for the cervix more easily. STEP 2: Be sure to use plenty of lubrication. You Can Never Use To Much Lube!!!!!!!!
Once the inseminator has located the cervix they will hold it in their hand. Using their free hand the inseminator will obtain the syringe with a plastic sheath (pipette) already prepared with a straw of semen. STEP 3 & 4:
Carefully inserting the syringe with semen, being sure not to contaminate it with feces or other contaminates, the inseminator will insert the syringe into the females vagina. They will continue to pass the syringe until they can pass it through to the end of the cervix. STEP 5:
Once the end of the cervix is reached, the plunger on the syringe can be depressed allowing the semen to be deposited directly into the uterus of the female. The Sperm will then hopefully reach and fertilize the egg resulting in conception, and eventually a fetus. STEP 6:
The procedure in sows is slightly different from that used in Cows and Mares. There is no rectal palpation necessary in sows, only passing a pipette into the vagina. Once passed, a bottle of extended semen is placed at the end of the pipette. No pressure is needed on the bottle, the sows reproductive track will complete the procedure. The bottle of extended semen does need to be protected from the light and temperature changes to protect the sperm. What about Pigs?
Factors Effecting Conception Rate Time of insemination # of sperm inseminated Fertility of males Skill of inseminator
If all goes well, the female animal becomes pregnant and carries the baby to term. Then once the baby is born it will be the result of a successful Artificial Insemination procedure.