Presentation on theme: "Artificial Insemination. History of Artificial Insemination 1322- Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed."— Presentation transcript:
History of Artificial Insemination Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed his prized mare Successful AI of Dogs 1900’s – Livestock –Became popular in cattle 1960’s & 70’s –Sucessful in Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Swine, Horses, Dogs, Cats, Poultry, Lab Animals, Humans, and Insects.
Advantages of Using AI Maximize use of outstanding sires. Thus, enhancing the genetic value of the herd. Providing access to high quality sires at modest prices. Also, avoid price of ownership. Improve herd by selecting the best sire match for female. Records and genetic traits available Prevention of disease transmission(std’s)
Advantages Continued Shortening of the birthing season Improved merchandising through the use of well publicized sires with known reputations. Increased safety – no aggressive males on farm (bull, stallion) “Life Insurance” for the sire, will still have offspring after he is deceased.
Disadvantages of Using AI Requires skilled technician. More labor intensive, females must be watched to detect estrus. Must have special handling facilities. Training sires for collection Accentuates poor traits if a poor sire is selected May increase the spread of disease
Process of Artificial Insemination Semen Collection –Two methods Artificial vaginas electroejaculation Semen Processing, Storage and Handling Insemination
Semen Collection Male is trained to mount a teaser animal or dummy Penis is directed into an artificial vagina that is temperature controlled to be the same temperature as the female. Ejaculation occurs
Frequency of collection Bulls –Twice a day – 2 days/week- frozen semen –Three times a week otherwise Sheep –Many times a day for several weeks Boars and Stallions –Every other day –If everyday is required for short period, let rest for 2-3 days between intensive collection.
Semen Processing Dillution –Can be diluted so that more animals can be bred with one ejaculate Freezing –Use liquid nitrogen at -320°F Storage –Put into ampules or plastic straws. Liquid nitrogen tanks Horse and swine semen is generally not frozen
Insemination Estrus detection in female Timing is important – sperm need to be injected into oviduct at ovulation Semen is thawed and placed in inseminating device. Technician inserts speculum into female reproductive tract into cervix Inseminating tube is inserted and sperm is deposited.
Technician is well trained to avoid damaging the reproductive tract of females. Cleanliness and sterilization are very important to reduce disease transmission.
Procedures Cattle –Rectovaginal technique -Straw inseminating gun or pipet Sheep –Speculum – straw inseminating gun or pipet –Laparoscopic insemination (most common) Semen is deposited directly into the uterine horns by way of surgical procedure. Swine –Cork screw pipet pipet is hooked to bottle containing semen Horse –Vaginal method Straw inseminating gun or pipet