2 History of Artificial Insemination 1322- Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed his prized mare1780- Successful AI of Dogs1900’s – LivestockBecame popular in cattle 1960’s & 70’sSucessful in Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Swine, Horses, Dogs, Cats, Poultry, Lab Animals, Humans, and Insects.
3 Advantages of Using AIMaximize use of outstanding sires. Thus, enhancing the genetic value of the herd.Providing access to high quality sires at modest prices. Also, avoid price of ownership.Improve herd by selecting the best sire match for female.Records and genetic traits availablePrevention of disease transmission(std’s)
4 Advantages Continued Shortening of the birthing season Improved merchandising through the use of well publicized sires with known reputations.Increased safety – no aggressive males on farm (bull, stallion)“Life Insurance” for the sire, will still have offspring after he is deceased.
5 Disadvantages of Using AI Requires skilled technician.More labor intensive, females must be watched to detect estrus.Must have special handling facilities.Training sires for collectionAccentuates poor traits if a poor sire is selectedMay increase the spread of disease
6 Process of Artificial Insemination Semen CollectionTwo methodsArtificial vaginaselectroejaculationSemen Processing, Storage and HandlingInsemination
7 Semen Collection Male is trained to mount a teaser animal or dummy Penis is directed into an artificial vagina that is temperature controlled to be the same temperature as the female.Ejaculation occurs
8 Frequency of collection BullsTwice a day – 2 days/week- frozen semenThree times a week otherwiseSheepMany times a day for several weeksBoars and StallionsEvery other dayIf everyday is required for short period, let rest for 2-3 days between intensive collection.
9 Semen Processing Dillution Freezing Storage Liquid nitrogen tanks Can be diluted so that more animals can be bred with one ejaculateFreezingUse liquid nitrogen at -320°FStoragePut into ampules or plastic straws.Liquid nitrogen tanksHorse and swine semen is generally not frozen
10 Insemination Estrus detection in female Timing is important – sperm need to be injected into oviduct at ovulationSemen is thawed and placed in inseminating device.Technician inserts speculum into female reproductive tract into cervixInseminating tube is inserted and sperm is deposited.
11 Technician is well trained to avoid damaging the reproductive tract of females. Cleanliness and sterilization are very important to reduce disease transmission.
12 Procedures Cattle Sheep Swine Horse Rectovaginal technique -Straw inseminating gun or pipetSheepSpeculum – straw inseminating gun or pipetLaparoscopic insemination (most common)Semen is deposited directly into the uterine horns by way of surgical procedure.SwineCork screw pipetpipet is hooked to bottle containing semenHorseVaginal methodStraw inseminating gun or pipet