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Biomass resources characterization and biofuels

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1 Biomass resources characterization and biofuels
CLAUDIA BASSANO Renewable Sources and Innovative Energetic Cycles C.R. CASACCIA – Via Anguillarese, TEL 00060 S. MARIA DI GALERIA FAX ROMA

2 Biomass resources characterization and biofuels
CONTENTS Biomass resources characterization and biofuels What is biomass? Biomass resources - Biomass characterization - Biofuels types - Solid biofuels pellets

3 What is biomass? Any organic matter whic is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal residues, municipal residues. Biomass is produced from water and CO2 by photosynthesis.

4 Photosynthesis

5 Renewable energy source
Climate neutral

6 structural components
50% polymers of sugars ethanol 40 %

7 Agricultural Residues
Biomass Resources Forest Wood Residues Agricultural Residues Energy Crops Forest residue Mill waste Urban wood waste Corn Stover Rice hulls Sugarcane bagasse Animal biosolids Hybrid poplar Switchgrass Willow Fonte:

8 Forest Wood Residues Forest Residues
The primary forestry residues include: logging residues from conventional harvest operations, forest management and land cleaning.

9 Forest Wood Residues Mill Waste Urban wood waste
Secondary forestry residues mill wastes pulping liquors. Urban wood waste Tertiary forest residues : construction and demolition debris, unusable pallets, tree trimmings from the urban environment

10 Agricultural Residues
Agriculture crop residues include stalks and leaves, not harvested or removed from the fields. Examples include : corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, soybeans straw, sugarcane corn agricultural tree crops (vineyards, olive and fruit groves) Animal residues Agro-industrial residues of food processing industry Waste stream: rice husks, molasses & bagasse, residues from palm oil mills

11 Agricultural Residues
Animal Wastes From farms and animal processing operations Complex source of organic materials, environmental consequences anaerobic biodigestion bacteria biological process BIOGAS

12 Energy crops Herbaceous Woody
Crops used for energy purposes Herbaceous Woody Short Rotation Forestry Perennials Miscanthus, Cardoon ecc. Annual Rapeseed, Sunflower, Beet, Sorghum Cardoon

13 Energy crops Herbaceous Energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are:
annual (cut annually and re-sown each year) perennials Switchgrass Cardoon Sorghum Rapeseed

14 Energy crops Herbaceous Energy crops Product: SUGAR CROPS
Sorghum, sugar cane, sugar-beet bioethanol Sorghum OILY CROPS Rapeseed, sunflower, soybean Rapeseed biodiesel

15 Herbaceous Energy crops
Herbaceous Energy crops yields Yield is the quantity of biomass you can have from one hectare of land The choice of the appropriate location is the most important factor driving the biomass yields of the grasses Switchgrass yields by region Miscanthus yields by region

16 Herbaceous Energy crops
Miscanthus and switchgrass are particularly interesting for the following reasons: their high biomass yield potential the concentration of the yield in one harvest, and delayed harvest is possible their persistence and yield stability their efficient use of resources and low input demand the benefits of their rhizome systems.

17 Short Rotation Forestry
Energy crops Short Rotation Forestry Short rotation forestry (SRF) are selected, fast-growing, tree species, such as willow, poplar and eucalyptus Harvested within 3 to 10 years of planting. Trees are planted very densely Poplar per ha Willows ,000 per ha

18 Woody Energy crops

19 Woody Energy crops Short Rotation Forestry
Sources: McKendry (2002); Venturi, Piero and Venturi, Gianpietro (2003). Analysis of energy comparison for crops in European agricultural systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, 235 – 255.

20 Energy crops benefits Environmental benefits Marginal land recovery
protecting the land (improve soil quality) erosion control less fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide, and fungicide than annual row crops to purify polluted soils. (phytoremediation) sequestration of CO2; Economical benefits income benefits for farmers positive effects on local employment in rural areas for the biomass resource production

21 Energy crops disadvantages
bioenergy activity requires very deep knowledge of wide sectoral competence High level of mechanization Water, soil, climatic, environmental constraints limiting the biomass productivity and the type of plants Energy crops are less competitive future: higher yields at lower costs Need to adopt horizontal and vertical integration of sub-systems to improve the economic basis of bioenergy complexes

22 Future expansion of the biomass power market
Energy crops Future expansion of the biomass power market The development of SRF for renewable energy production is a new sector with potential for considerable expansion, offering benefits for growers, developers, consumers, local communities and the environment. Research are focused on increase yield productivity The SRF represent one of the point on the future expansion of the biomass power market. biomass power market require the development of a feedstock supply system based on large-scale and sure production of biomass fuel. After

23 Biomass characterization
The biomass forms the basis of any Bioenergy application and often the physic, chemical characteristics of the fuel also define the type of technology to be used. Characteristics affecting the properties of wood as a fuel: heating value, chemical composition, moisture content, density, hardness, the amount of volatile matters, the amount of solid carbon, ash

24 Biomass characterization
Heating value . energy that is available from burning a substance High heating value (HHV) Low heating value (LHV) Value used

25 Biomass characterization
Low heating value . The

26 Biomass characterization
Volume (m³) required to substitute one cubic meter of oil by some other fuels 1 thermal MW store a volume of cubic meter of coal store cubic meter, which means a quantity six more

27 Biomass characterization Average moisture content of the total weight
Chemical composition proximate analysis DRY MATTER WATER ASH 0,4-0,6 %of dm weight SOLID CARBON 11,4-20 % of dm weight VOLATILE MATTER 84-88 % of dm weight Average moisture content of the total weight Bark, Saw dust % Forest chips % Wood pellets %

28 Biomass characterization
Chemical composition ultimate analysis ultimate analysis C  % H  6- 6,5 % O  % N  0,1-0,5 % S  0, % H2O CO2 NO2 SO2 ash Combustion

29 Biomass characterization

30 Biomass characterization
Ash The ash composition and the ash melting behaviour should be taken into consideration to avoid slagging problems in boiler. Data about The melting behaviour of straw and energy crops (Miscanthus) is in a range of °C Normal wood do not start melting before 1100°C.

31 Biomass characterization
Ash Source: Biomass Resource Assessment and Utilization Options for Three Counties in Eastern Oregon Oregon Department of Energy December 2003

32 Biomass characterization
Moisture Moisture content is an important characteristic affecting the quality of biomass fuel for thermal processes like combustion, gasification and pyrolysis.

33 Biomass characterization
Moisture Moisture: influence design plant, direct cost factor, influence the price of fuel. the more water fuel contains then lower heating value then fuel efficiency is lower the more water fuel contains then bigger boiler volume needed -then more expensive boiler In combustion processes, high moisture content can lead to incomplete combustion, low thermal efficiency, low flame temperatures, excessive emissions and the formation of tars that could cause slagging problems. lower moisture content cost less to transport and can reduce the size of handling, processing and energy conversion equipment

34 Biomass energy chains Main biomass energy chains : Wood energy chain
the use of dry products (cellulosic crops and residues) for thermo-chemical conversion (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis); Liquid biofuel chain the use of crops (oilseed rape, sunflower, sugar beet, cereals etc.) for liquid biofuel production; Ethanol (sugar crops) Biodiesel (oil crops) Biogas the use of wet products for anaerobic digestion.

35 Biomass energy chains

36 Electricity and heat production
Biofuels types Biomass low energy density transport problem expensive Biofuels Fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass or from their processing and conversion derivatives Solid biofuel Chips Pellets briquettes Electricity and heat production Liquid biofuel biodiesel bioethanol transport

37 Main advantages of biofuels:
increase the energetic value to lower the volume for storage to facilitate the handling, transportation and to lower its costs to increase the energy density to volume ratio to eliminate the loss of material caused to fermentation

38 Biofuels chips wood chips
chipped woody biomass has the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatment typical length 3-5 cm Moisture 30-40 % Density kg/m3 LHV 10-13,4 MJ/kg 3-3,6 kWh/kg 750 kWh/m3 Cost €/t

39 Biofuels pellets pellet
Wood pellets are densified wood fuels which have been produced from sawdust, grinding dust, shavings, bark, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass, or biomass blends and mixtures. etc. typical length 5 to 30 mm Moisture 8-12 % Density kg/m3 LHV 17 MJ/kg 4,7 kWh/kg kWh/m3 Cost €/t

40 The pellets production pellet production process
Storing and pretreatment Drying the raw material Pellet storing Pellet cooling Source :Refined Bio-Fuels Pellets and Briquettes Characteristics, uses and recent innovative production technologies

41 The pellets production
1. raw materials are fed into pellet cavity 2. Rotation of die and roller pressure forces materials through die, compressing them into pellets I 3. Pellets extruded to the outside of the die

42 The pellets advantages
Advantages of wood fuel: Less volume Fewer deliveries Consistent size and moisture content Less ash and emissions Pellets are dry and can be stored without degrading

43 The pellets disadvantages
Advantages of wood fuel: Flow like a liquid Easier to handle Easier to ignite Disadvantages of wood fuel: Need large storage place Ashes More expensive Pellets stove

44 Biofuels chips and pellets
1 kg of chips whit moisture 40 % LHW=10,46 MJ/kg is equivalent : 0,28 litre oil (LHWoil =10,19 kWh/ litre) 0,3 m3 CH4 (PCI CH4 =9,5 kWh/Nm3) 1 kg of pellet LHW=16,92 MJ/kg is equivalent : 0,46 litre oil 0,49 m3 of CH4 Confront Chips process simpler and cheaper Chips lower energy density, lower volumetric bulk density, more storage space

45 Biomass resources characterization and biofuels
Conclusion Biomass has different origines Energy crops : future expansion of the biomass power market. Low energy density biofuels, transport problem Pellets solid biofuel: expansion market in Europe

46 Biomass resources characterization and biofuels
GOODBYE Claudia Bassano

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