Presentation on theme: "Biomass resources characterization and biofuels"— Presentation transcript:
1Biomass resources characterization and biofuels CLAUDIA BASSANORenewable Sources and Innovative Energetic CyclesC.R. CASACCIA – Via Anguillarese, TEL00060 S. MARIA DI GALERIA FAXROMA
2Biomass resources characterization and biofuels CONTENTSBiomass resources characterization and biofuelsWhat is biomass?Biomass resources- Biomass characterization- Biofuels types- Solid biofuels pellets
3What is biomass?Any organic matter whic is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal residues, municipal residues.Biomass is produced from water and CO2 by photosynthesis.
8Forest Wood Residues Forest Residues The primary forestry residues include:logging residues from conventional harvest operations, forest management and land cleaning.
9Forest Wood Residues Mill Waste Urban wood waste Secondary forestry residuesmill wastespulping liquors.Urban wood wasteTertiary forest residues :construction and demolition debris,unusable pallets,tree trimmings from the urban environment
10Agricultural Residues Agriculture crop residues include stalks and leaves, not harvested or removed from the fields.Examples include :corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw,soybeans straw, sugarcanecornagricultural tree crops (vineyards, olive and fruit groves)Animal residuesAgro-industrial residues of food processing industryWaste stream: rice husks, molasses & bagasse, residues from palm oil mills
11Agricultural Residues Animal WastesFrom farms and animal processing operationsComplex source of organic materials, environmental consequencesanaerobic biodigestionbacteriabiological processBIOGAS
12Energy crops Herbaceous Woody Crops used for energy purposesHerbaceousWoodyShort Rotation ForestryPerennialsMiscanthus, Cardoon ecc.AnnualRapeseed, Sunflower, Beet, SorghumCardoon
13Energy crops Herbaceous Energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are: annual (cut annually and re-sown each year)perennialsSwitchgrassCardoonSorghumRapeseed
15Herbaceous Energy crops Herbaceous Energy crops yieldsYield is the quantity of biomass you can have from one hectare of landThe choice of the appropriate location is the most important factor driving the biomass yields of the grassesSwitchgrass yields by regionMiscanthus yields by region
16Herbaceous Energy crops Miscanthus and switchgrass are particularly interesting for the following reasons:their high biomass yield potentialthe concentration of the yield in one harvest, and delayed harvest is possibletheir persistence and yield stabilitytheir efficient use of resources and low input demandthe benefits of their rhizome systems.
17Short Rotation Forestry Energy cropsShort Rotation ForestryShort rotation forestry (SRF) are selected, fast-growing, tree species, such as willow, poplar and eucalyptusHarvested within 3 to 10 years of planting.Trees are planted very denselyPoplar per haWillows ,000 per ha
19Woody Energy crops Short Rotation Forestry Sources: McKendry (2002); Venturi, Piero and Venturi, Gianpietro (2003). Analysis of energy comparison for crops in European agricultural systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, 25, 235 – 255.
20Energy crops benefits Environmental benefits Marginal land recovery protecting the land (improve soil quality)erosion controlless fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide, and fungicide than annual row cropsto purify polluted soils. (phytoremediation)sequestration of CO2;Economical benefitsincome benefits for farmerspositive effects on local employment in rural areas for the biomass resource production
21Energy crops disadvantages bioenergy activity requires very deep knowledge of wide sectoral competenceHigh level of mechanizationWater, soil, climatic, environmental constraints limiting the biomass productivity and the type of plantsEnergy crops are less competitivefuture: higher yields at lower costsNeed to adopt horizontal and vertical integration of sub-systems to improve the economic basis of bioenergy complexes
22Future expansion of the biomass power market Energy cropsFuture expansion of the biomass power marketThe development of SRF for renewable energy production is a new sector with potential for considerable expansion, offering benefits for growers, developers, consumers, local communities and the environment.Research are focused on increase yield productivityThe SRF represent one of the point on the future expansion of the biomass power market.biomass power market require the development of a feedstock supply system based on large-scale and sure production of biomass fuel.After
23Biomass characterization The biomass forms the basis of any Bioenergy application and often the physic, chemical characteristics of the fuel also define the type of technology to be used.Characteristics affecting the properties of wood as a fuel:heating value,chemical composition,moisture content,density,hardness,the amount of volatile matters,the amount of solid carbon,ash
24Biomass characterization Heating value.energy that is available from burning a substanceHigh heating value (HHV)Low heating value (LHV)Value used
26Biomass characterization Volume (m³) required to substitute one cubic meter of oil by some other fuels1 thermal MWstore a volume of cubic meter of coalstore cubic meter, which means a quantity six more
27Biomass characterization Average moisture content of the total weight Chemical compositionproximate analysisDRY MATTERWATERASH 0,4-0,6 %of dm weightSOLID CARBON11,4-20 % of dm weightVOLATILE MATTER84-88 % of dm weightAverage moisture content of the total weightBark, Saw dust %Forest chips %Wood pellets %
30Biomass characterization AshThe ash composition and the ash melting behaviour should be taken into consideration to avoid slagging problems in boiler.Data aboutThe melting behaviour of straw and energy crops (Miscanthus) is in a range of °CNormal wood do not start melting before 1100°C.
31Biomass characterization AshSource: Biomass Resource Assessment and Utilization Options for Three Counties in Eastern Oregon Oregon Department of Energy December 2003
32Biomass characterization MoistureMoisture content is an important characteristic affecting the quality of biomass fuel for thermal processes like combustion, gasification and pyrolysis.
33Biomass characterization MoistureMoisture: influence design plant, direct cost factor, influence the price of fuel.the more water fuel contains then lower heating value then fuel efficiency is lowerthe more water fuel contains then bigger boiler volume needed -then more expensive boilerIn combustion processes, high moisture content can lead to incomplete combustion, low thermal efficiency, low flame temperatures, excessive emissions and the formation of tars that could cause slagging problems.lower moisture content cost less to transport and can reduce the size of handling, processing and energy conversion equipment
34Biomass energy chains Main biomass energy chains : Wood energy chain the use of dry products (cellulosic crops and residues) for thermo-chemical conversion (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis);Liquid biofuel chainthe use of crops (oilseed rape, sunflower, sugar beet, cereals etc.) for liquid biofuel production;Ethanol (sugar crops)Biodiesel (oil crops)Biogasthe use of wet products for anaerobic digestion.
36Electricity and heat production Biofuels typesBiomass low energy density transport problem expensiveBiofuelsFuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass or from their processing and conversion derivativesSolid biofuelChipsPelletsbriquettesElectricity and heat productionLiquid biofuelbiodiesel bioethanoltransport
37Main advantages of biofuels: increase the energetic valueto lower the volume for storageto facilitate the handling, transportation and to lower its coststo increase the energy density to volume ratioto eliminate the loss of material caused to fermentation
38Biofuels chips wood chips chipped woody biomass has the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatmenttypical length3-5 cmMoisture30-40 %Densitykg/m3LHV10-13,4 MJ/kg 3-3,6 kWh/kg 750 kWh/m3Cost€/t
39Biofuels pellets pellet Wood pellets are densified wood fuels which have been produced from sawdust, grinding dust, shavings, bark, herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass, or biomass blends and mixtures. etc.typical length5 to 30 mmMoisture8-12 %Densitykg/m3LHV17 MJ/kg 4,7 kWh/kg kWh/m3Cost€/t
40The pellets production pellet production process Storing and pretreatmentDrying the raw materialPellet storingPellet coolingSource :Refined Bio-Fuels Pellets and Briquettes Characteristics, uses and recent innovative production technologies
41The pellets production 1. raw materials are fed into pellet cavity2. Rotation of die and roller pressure forces materials through die, compressing them into pelletsI3. Pellets extruded to the outside of the die
42The pellets advantages Advantages of wood fuel:Less volumeFewer deliveriesConsistent size and moisture contentLess ash and emissionsPellets are dry and can be stored without degrading
43The pellets disadvantages Advantages of wood fuel:Flow like a liquidEasier to handleEasier to igniteDisadvantages of wood fuel:Need large storage placeAshesMore expensivePellets stove
44Biofuels chips and pellets 1 kg of chips whit moisture 40 % LHW=10,46 MJ/kg is equivalent :0,28 litre oil (LHWoil =10,19 kWh/ litre)0,3 m3 CH4 (PCI CH4 =9,5 kWh/Nm3)1 kg of pellet LHW=16,92 MJ/kg is equivalent :0,46 litre oil0,49 m3 of CH4ConfrontChips process simpler and cheaperChips lower energy density, lower volumetric bulk density, more storage space
45Biomass resources characterization and biofuels ConclusionBiomass has different originesEnergy crops : future expansion of the biomass power market.Low energy density biofuels, transport problemPellets solid biofuel: expansion market in Europe
46Biomass resources characterization and biofuels GOODBYEClaudia Bassano