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National Cereal Crop Residue Project Russ Karow, Head Oregon State University Dept of Crop & Soil Science.

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Presentation on theme: "National Cereal Crop Residue Project Russ Karow, Head Oregon State University Dept of Crop & Soil Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Cereal Crop Residue Project Russ Karow, Head Oregon State University Dept of Crop & Soil Science

2 Project Goal to explore possibilities for use of small grain straws as a biomass source for biofuels production to consider such use in a sustainable cropping system context Group was given planning grants

3 Group Activities organized a symposium at the 2009 ASA meeting on stover removal findings from long-term plots mapped National Ag Statistics Service yield data for wheat, barley, oat, grain sorghum and rice conducted wheat harvest index studies across major grain growing areas in 2008 and 2009

4 ASA Symposium Residue Removal and Soil Quality – Findings from Long-Term Research Plots Hero Gollany - CQESTR David Tarkalson – Irrigated Grain Residue Removal Stephen Machado – Pendleton long term (OR ) Emerson Nafziger - Morrow Plots (IL ) Randy Miles - Sanborn Field (MO -1888) David Powlson - Rothamsted Plots (England ) Gary Varvel – Current Corn Residue Removal Studies 2009 ASA symposium will be published as special series in Agronomy Journal

5 Train of Thought in Mapping dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall rainfall can vary dramatically over years US has vast grain acreages but generally low yield if straw is left in place for soil quality maintenance, then there are likely few places where straw can be harvested annually identify the places where consistent straw harvest seems possible and focus research efforts in these areas

6 Mapping-GIS Team Mike Halbleib Chris Daly Oregon State University PRISM Group

7 Dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall Yield = (inches available water – 4 for vegetation) x 6.5 bu/in rainfall ≠ available water due to evaporation High rainfall and irrigated production is limited by other factors

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10 US Wheat Yields

11 Harvest Index tool to convert grain yield to straw yield historic “rule of thumb” has been 38% which equates 100 pounds of straw for every bushel (60 pounds) of grain HI = grain/(grain + straw)  0.38 = 60/( )

12 US Wheat Yields & Straw HI 38

13 HI Studies Partnered with researchers already conducting grain variety trials and had them collect straw samples for HI determination and submission to INL for composition analysis HI determination procedures varied by site hence some observed variation may be due to sampling per se

14 Cereal Group Field Cooperators Brent Bean – Texas A&M Bradford Brown – Univ Idaho Bill Bruening – Univ Kentucky Jeff Edwards – Oklahoma State Mike Flowers – Oregon State Dewey Lee – Univ Georgia Michael J. Ottman – Arizona State Joel Ransom – North Dakota State Jochum J. Wiersma – Univ of Minnesota

15 2008 & 2009 HI Studies

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17 HI Studies 0.44 = 60 lb grain/(60 grain +76 straw)

18 US Wheat Yields & Straw HI 38/44

19 Straw needed for soil quality values vary depending on location – soil type, soil slope, rainfall lb/a seem reasonable values for effective harvest you may need an additional 3000 lb/a 6000 lb (3t)/a minimum??

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25 Summary despite vast acreages of grains, given year-to- year variation in yield and harvested acres, there may be few areas where straw can be sustainably harvested as the sole source for a biomass conversion facility possible sites depend on amount of straw left for soil quality maintenance and volume of straw required for a specific plant may be possible in some areas to do intermittent harvest of some fields

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27 Summary do detailed assessments of crops and other biomass in an area - straw likely to be one of several feed stocks for a plant issue in areas where straw is available for harvest may be competing uses – what will be the cost of drawing straw into biofuels use

28 Plans for ASA symposium will be published as special series in Agronomy Journal HI data will be submitted as AJ note Compiled NASS raw data will be posted to an accessible web site for general use Maps showing grain yields and predicted straw yields will be posted to an accessible web site for general use Explore ideas for other needed work

29 Map Website

30 Common awnedClub awnless Common beardless

31 2008 HI Values

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