Presentation on theme: "T HE R ESTORATION AND THE E IGHTEENTH C ENTURY By: Ashley H, Ashley, Cassie, Curtis, Vincent."— Presentation transcript:
T HE R ESTORATION AND THE E IGHTEENTH C ENTURY By: Ashley H, Ashley, Cassie, Curtis, Vincent.
T HE R ESTORATION AND E IGHTEENTH C ENTURY The Dates
L IST OF IMPORTANT DATES : Approximate time span of era: 1660-1784 1660: Royal Society Founded 1680: Bloodless Revolution Dryden: Absalom and Achitophel 1700: Defoe: Robinson Crusoe, the first English novel. 1720: Swift: Gulliver’s Travels 1740: Pope: An essay on Man 1760: Johnson’s Dictionary Sterne: Tristram Shandy Fielding: Tom Jones 1780: Boswell: The life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. Dryden: An Essay of Dramatic Poetry Isaac Newton discovers gravity Blake: Songs of Innocence
T HE R ESTORATION AND E IGHTEENTH C ENTURY Writers
J OHN D RYDEN (1631-1700) - Born Aug. 9 th 1631 in Aldwinckle, Northhamtonshire - Married lady Elizabeth Howard in 1663 - First poem was Heroic Stanzas, written about the death of Oliver Cromwell. - First heroic play was called the Indian Queen Over the next 20 years he wrote about thirty plays, and then moved on to poetry He fell upon hard times after the revolution of 1688 and lost any titles he had.
J OHN D RYDEN ( CONTINUED …) He then turned back to play writing and did some translating of Latin poems. His last important work before his death was Fables Ancient and Modern. He died May 1 st 1700, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
J OHN D RYDEN ( CONTINUED …) Most consider him the dominant literary figure of the restoration period. Known for his heroic couplets, balanced lines, satirical criticisms and witty turns of phase. He was remarkably objective, dealing not with his own personal feelings, but rather the world around him. Established the heroic couplet as the standard meter of English poetry. He strongly believed in stability he would often criticize anyone who was known to disturb that order. His political and religious views grew increasingly conservative, Weighs both sides of a situation before coming to a conclusion. Sensible, sharp, neat and clear.
Hidden Flame – John Dryden I feed a flame within, which so torments me That it both pains my heart, and yet contains me: 'Tis such a pleasing smart, and I so love it, That I had rather die than once remove it. Yet he, for whom I grieve, shall never know it; My tongue does not betray, nor my eyes show it. Not a sigh, nor a tear, my pain discloses, But they fall silently, like dew on roses. Thus, to prevent my Love from being cruel, My heart's the sacrifice, as 'tis the fuel; And while I suffer this to give him quiet, My faith rewards my love, though he deny it. On his eyes will I gaze, and there delight me; While I conceal my love no frown can fright me. To be more happy I dare not aspire, Nor can I fall more low, mounting no higher.
A LEXANDER P OPES He was born in London, England on May 21, 1688. His Roman Catholic father was a linen merchant. Pope had little formal schooling. From early childhood, he suffered many health problems. In 1700, his family was forced to move to a small estate in Binfield due to strong anti-Chatholic sentiment. Died on May 30 th, 1744.
A LEXANDER P OPES ( CONTINUED …) The Rape of the Lock (1712) made Pope famous as a poet. He is known for his An essay on Man, Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad. The first collected edition of Pope's works was published in 1717. He also wrote many "epistles". He uses Satirical verse in his writings. Translation of Homer He is considered as the third most frequently quoted writer in the English language. Pope is known to have written Isaac Newton's epitaph.
A N E SSAY ON M AN It is a poem Pope began work on it in 1729. Fishished the first three by 1731. Written in Heroic Couplets. Consists of 4 epistles. The poem was originally published anonymously. Use philosophy in order to "vindicate the ways of God to man. It popularized optimistic philosophy throughout England and the rest of Europe.
T HE R ESTORATION AND E IGHTEENTH C ENTURY Advancement in science or in discovery.
S CIENTIFIC D ISCOVERIES Following the groundbreaking discoveries of the 17 th Century, especially, Neutons law of gravity; The 18 th century continued to with new discoveries such as the discovery of Uranus, expanding human knowledge further into the stars. The Discoveries of the 18 th century continued to make the world smaller and less mysterious. Light was first produced by electricity, and machines began to appear in the factories. There-for work could be done faster and more efficiently by the average man, although with the invention of artificial light work hours were stretched longer through the night and less time was spent with the family, and deteriorated the social bonds and togetherness.
S CIENTIFIC D ISCOVERIES ( CONTINUED …) 1714 - Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer 1745 - Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist first capacitor, the Leyden jar 1750 - Joseph Black: describes latent heat 1751 - Benjamin Franklin: Lightning is electrical 1778 - Antoine Lavoisier (and Joseph Priestley: discovery of oxygen leading to end of Phlogiston theory 1781 - William Herschel announces discovery of Uranus, expanding the known boundaries of the solar system for the first time in modern history 1785 - William Withering: publishes the first definitive account of the use of foxglove (digitalis) for treating dropsy 1787 - Jacques Charles: Charles' law of ideal gas 1789 - Antoine Lavoisier: law of conservation of mass, basis for chemistry, and the beginning of modern chemistry 1796 - Georges Cuvier: Establishes extinction as a fact 1799 - William Smith: Publishes geologic map of England, first geologic map ever, first application of stratigraphy
T HE R ESTORATION AND E IGHTEENTH C ENTURY Religion
T HE E RA AND HOW IT AFFECTED R ELIGION The Restoration and the Eighteenth century took place in the same era as the Age of Enlightenment. The era before it was a very romantic one; a focus on emotion and breathtaking style. In contrast to that era came this one. The mentality of the age changed from idealism and faith to realism, rationalism, and science. Due to this mental shift, people became more skeptical about religion and anything else that couldn’t be explained through science. Ergo, many different groups were created in reaction. Atheism was strong during this period, as well as a branch of Christianity called Deism similar beliefs, except they also thought that religious truths could be found through observation of the natural world and through rational thought).
R ELIGION AND THE M ONARCHY While this age was heavily influenced by rationalism and science, faith and religion still played an important role in this time period. At the time of King Charles II, a charismatic man who was criticized for having a court built around pleasure, many suspected that he was influenced by Roman Catholicism (as a mainly protestant country, that didn’t go over too well with the English). It didn’t help matters that Charles II brother and heir to the throne, James, was a well-known Roman Catholic.
B LOODLESS R EVOLUTION (R ELIGION AND M ONARCHY CONTINUED …) When James became King, people wanted him gone and replaced with the Duke of Monmouth, who, though an illegitimate son of Charles II, was a protestant. They did not succeed, but this doesn’t mean that James stayed a King for long. A revolution called the Bloodless Revolution (a.k.a.: Glorious Revolution) occurred, where James was overthrown. Despite it being called Bloodless, it wasn’t completely so, as there were riots and three great battles all over the continent. William III succeeded to the thrown in James place, and because of the revolution, government came to be, as monarchy was no longer wanted.
E RAS OVERALL AFFECT ON L ITERATURE Naturally, the shift in mentality took an affect on the literature of this period. Writers and poets strayed from fluid, dream-like writing and put much less emphasis on emotions and the overall experience of their work. They focused on structure, analyzing, and examining life as well as expressing their views the best way possible. This new mentality also paved the way for the worlds first English novel.
W ORK C ITED Information from: Our Literary Heritage (textbook) http://www.greenwood.com/catalog/GR2015.aspx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_discoveries http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectu res/enlightenment.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorious_Revolution