Presentation on theme: "CA 104 Regional French Cuisine Massif Alpin, Rhone Valley."— Presentation transcript:
CA 104 Regional French Cuisine Massif Alpin, Rhone Valley
Alpes - Rhone Départements: Rhône-Alpes: Ain, Ardèche Drôme, Isère Loire, Rhône Savoie, Haute- Savoie Major Cities Bourg–en-Bresse, Lyon, Grenoble, Saint-Etienne, Valence Climate: On average the Rhone-Alpes has twice as much rainfall as any other French region. Climates vary from wet (mountains) to Mediterranean (south along the Rhone)
Rhone-Alpes is the most mountainous area of France (located in the center east of the country) with parts of the Alps and the Mont Blanc peak (shared with Italy) reaching 4000 meters. To the north are the French regions of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, to the west it borders the region Auvergne, to the south Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The east of the region contains the western part of the Alps and borders Switzerland and Italy. The central part features the valley of the Rhône and the Saône. and Lyon (2 nd largest city of France) is where the two rivers meet. In the west of the region the Massif Central starts. The region also borders or contains lakes such as Lake Geneva and Lake Annecy and contains more than 7000 km of rivers. Major Industries: Tourism – Alps, skiing, hiking – culinary (Lyon) Education – Lyon & Grenoble General industries Lyon is a gastronomic center of France. Specialities include Lyon sausage, salami (known here as "rosette"), tripe and quenelles. The apline region is famous for fondue, raclette, gratin dauphinois and gratin savoyard. The region is famous for Bresse poultry and many cheeses- Tomme de Savoie, Bleu de Bresse, Reblochon, Saint-Marcellin and Vacherin.
History in brief 6th century BC, the Celts gradually populated Rhône- Alpes but could not stop Hannibal, the Carthagenian general who crossed the Alps in 218 BC, nor, a century later, the Romans. Those settlers erected cities and built a network of roads and aqueducts to bring water from the mountains and ruled until the fall of the Roman Empire in 476. The Middle Ages saw the strengthening of royal authority over the Rhône Valley, while the Counts of Savoie became the guardians of the higher Alps and the “Dauphins” ruled over Dauphiné. In 1349, the last Dauphin sold the land to the French King and the title of "Dauphin" was thereafter reserved for the heir of the French crown.
History in brief In the 15th century, Savoie was united with the Italian province of Piedmont to form the Dukedom of Savoie. In 1481, King Louis XI inherited Savoie, ushering in a long period during which the area was alternately under the rule of France and even Spain for eight years. After losing its autonomy in 1628, Dauphiné recovered to enjoy a period of great economic expansion. Savoie was returned to the French crown in 1748, and a few decades later its chief city, Lyon, resisted the forces of the Revolution, facing reprisals as a result. In 1815, Savoie became the property of King Victor- Emmanuel I of Sardinia, but in an 1860 was definitely reunited with France.
Cuisine of Rhone - Alps Savoie and Dauphiné are some of the food riches areas in France. Trouts from mountain streams and lake fishes like carp, pike, char, whitefish,eel and crayfish. Game meats from the alps, chamois, hare, quail, partridge and woodcock, and the flavored beef from cattle feasting on alpine herbs, berries and aromatic hay. Gratin savoyard, made with eggs, milk and local cheese, while the Dauphiné version replaces milk with bouillon does not feature cheese Lyonnais cuisine. Lyon has a great culinary tourism industry and the surrounding farms provide the pork for sausages, ham patés, brawn (fromage de tête) and rosette, the most famous of Lyon sausages. Other specialties include andouillette à la lyonnaise (tripe sausages stuffed with veal and served with fried onions), salade lyonnaise (made with lamb shanks and chicken livers) and cervelas lyonnais (a brioche filled with a mixture of sausage, truffles and pistachio nuts).
Cuisine of Rhone - Alps From Bresse comes, arguably the best chickens in the world, (à la lyonnaise: poached in its stock and with truffle inserted under its skin) and the famoussauce Nantua (a cream and crayfish puree emulsion). Rhône-Alpes’ cheeses are many and varied: Tomme de Savoie Chevrotin des Alpes, Reblochon and Dauphinois are the specialties of the mountains. The Vacherin de Chambéry (extra- creamy cheese that is eaten with a spoon). North of Lyon, Bleu de Bresse and Bleu de Gex are creamy blue-veined cheeses and Chevretons du Beaujolais is made with goat-milk. Alpine sweets and desserts include gâteau de Savoie, made with potato flour, and Grenoble’s walnut cake. From Lyon there are bugnes (lemon fritters) and almond-filled puff pastries. Montélimar is famous for its nougat and, across the Rhône, Privas is the capital of marrons glacés (candied sweet chestnuts.
Fish & Seafood River& lake fishes – carp, trout, eel, pike, pike perch, salmon trout Crayfish – Ecrevisse Frogs - Grenouille Cheeses Reblochon, Saint-marcelain, Tomme de savoie, Chevrotins de Aravis, Beaufort Meat and Poultry Poulet de Bresse – Bresse (blue feet) chicken, capon, turkey Guinea fowl from Drome Milk Lamb – agneau de lait Milk goat (kid) – chevreau de lait Jambon (Ham) de Savoie Lyon sausages - many varieties Rosette de Lyon (Salami) Vegetables Beetroot – from Ampuis Cardoons – from Vaulx–en Velins Condiments Oil – from Colza Walnut oil Fruits Strawberries – de lyonnaise Peaches – Walnuts – from Grenoble Apricots Cherries Pears & Apples Products – Rhones- Alps
Products – Rhone – Alps Poulet de Bresse –Bresse Chicken Although there are many different breeds of chicken in France and/or the world, nothing rivals the Bresse chicken. The “Poulet de Bresse” (AOC since 1957) these birds are reared free-range and according to strict guidelines. Bresse chickens were the fist live-stock top be granted AOC. These chickens are known for its gamey yet light taste, white firm but tender flesh and yellowish fat. Although there are 3 varieties of birds sold as Bresse chicken, (black-Bourg and grey-Louhans), the Beny breed with its red crown, white feathers and blue feet (France national flag) are the most common. Turkey and Capons are also specialties from Bresse.
Charcuterie A delicatessen that specializes in meat (thesaurus) Charcuterie has been considered a French culinary art since the 15th century. It refers to products, particularly (but not limited to) pork specialties such as PÂTÉS, RILLETTES GALANTINES, CRÉPINETTES etc., which are sold in a delicatessen- style shop, a charcuterie. Generally, for sausage products there are three categories – raw eat products (Salami, cured ham etc) – cooked eat products (items sold raw but need to be cooked before serving (grill sausages etc) - and products which are cooked (ham, Andouille, cold cuts, pates, rillettes etc) These products may or may not be smoked, cured and smoked, brined or salted and salted/dried.
Products – Rhone – Alps Rosette de Lyon – Lyon sausage A dry-cured sausage with coarse texture made of pork. It is probably the most prestigious salami-type sausage in France. Cervelas de lyon This have sausage may have originated in Florence and originally included brains (cervelle), hence its name. Made pork shoulder meat mixed with belly and bacon, and seasoned with salt, pepper, nutmeg, and sugar. Additional flavours added can be port, Madeira, Cognac truffles and pistachios or morels. It is uncooked and must be kept refrigerated 1 to 2 days and simmered for 30 to 40 minutes per pound, or until it bubbles when pricked. It is closely related to German or Swiss cervelat.
Products Rhone – Alpes - Cheese Tomme de Savoie There are a variety of cheese sold under the name “Tomme de Savoie” all originating from the Alps region of France. Made from the skimmed milk, after the cream has been removed (low fat content 20-45%). Produced all year with slight taste and character differences according to the feed of the animals (winter hay / summer grass). The Cheese is mild, semi-firm with a beige interior and approx. 18 cm diameter, 5-8 cm thick and between 1 - 2 kg in weight. Tomme is matured several months in cellars after pressing, to produces the characteristically thick brownish-grey rind and flavor. Beaufort A “gruyere” type of semi hard, cow’s milk cheese. Typically 11lirtes of milk are used to produce 1kg of cheese. Generally aged for 8-12 months and takes it’s unique flavor from the high altitude grasses the animals feed on while in the alps. Three varietes – Alpages (chalet artisan production), d’hiver (winter, hay feed) and de savoie (summer, grass feed)
Products Rhone – Alpes - Cheese Reblochon AOC raw cow’s milk cheese from the Savoie, alpine region. Reblochon is a soft washed-rind cheese about 450g per piece with a fine white mould coating. Generally aged 6-8 weeks. Saint-Marcellin S oft cow's milk cheese named after the town of Saint-Marcellin (Isère). Produced in a geographical area of the former Dauphiné region. Small in size, weighing about 80 grams (50% fat), with a mottled creamy-white exterior. The degree of runniness increases with age. Chevrotin Made of raw and whole goat milk in the Savoy Mountains. It has a high content in CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid). "Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée" (AOC) at national level since May 2002 and "Protected Designation of Origin" (PDO) at European level.
Products Rhone – Alpes - Fresh water fish & shellfish Carp There are several species of carp are used for human consumption (grass, bighead, mud, common, silver). All carp are native to European and Asian lakes and have an oily flesh. Some live in muddy waters and therefore need to be purged before slaughtered. Pike Pike are exclusively found in the Northern hemisphere. The flesh is pure white and excellent for farce meats and quenelles Crayfish – Ecrevisse Small fresh water crustaceans that live in rivers and streams which do not freeze in the winter. The tail only can be eaten and considered a specialty.
Products Rhone – Alpes - Fresh water fish & shellfish Salmoninae Family Trout Several species of trout can be found in rivers streams and lakes throughout Europe (lake, brook, rainbow, brown). Trout are extensively farmed to replenish depleted stock. Omble chevalier – Arctic Char – Salmon Trout A agent fish remaining from the last ice age. It can be still found in lake Geneva, Lake Paradru and lake Bourget. Market size of Arctic char averages 2.5 kg. With a light red-orange flesh.
Traditional Dishes of “Lyon - Bresse” Carpe Farcie – Roasted Filled Carp Oven roasted carp on the whole with a mie-de-pain (fresh bread crumbs) shallots and herb stuffing Gratinee Lyonnaise Onion and flour thickened beef or chicken soup with grated cheese toast Cardons a la moelle – Cardoons with bone marrow Gently baked in white sauce with bone marrow Quenelles Nantua Fish quenelles (famously pike) in Nantua sauce Nantua sauce Bechamel based sauce with crayfish butter and cream Foie de veau au vinaigre – Veal liver with vinegar Sauteed slices of veal liver with red wine vinegar flavored sauce Bugnes Dough fritters often served for Breakfast - Viennoisserie
Traditional Dishes of “Savoie - Alps” Omble chevalier Meuniere Panfried arctic char in meuniere preperation Meuniere - a la meuniere A fish preperation with “noisette” butter, parsley and lemon juice Truites au bleu – Blue trout In court bouillon poached trout – they turn lightly blue due to the acid in the court bouillon Gratin Dauphinoise – Poatoe gratin “Dauphine styel” Layered sliced potatoes baked with cream and butter (sometimes with cheese) Gateau aux noix de Grenoble – Grenoble walnut cake