Presentation on theme: "THE FLAMENCO A CROSSROADS OF CULTURES. The Flamenco music is the result of a crossroads of cultures which took place in the south of Spain (Andalucia)"— Presentation transcript:
The Flamenco music is the result of a crossroads of cultures which took place in the south of Spain (Andalucia) through history.
This relief already shows a taste for dance and music in the Roman province of Cádiz in Andalucía “Puella gaditane” (A girl from Cádiz) 40 – 104 d. C.
The Gregorian chant (the (Visigotic or Hispanic chant in Spain) was the heir of the Greekroman musical tradition during the Middle Ages and also influenced the use of melismas (several sounds in a syllable).
The Arab domination (711- 1.492) of the Iberian Peninsula (Al- Andalus), left its traces in a series of melodies and rhythms in the Flamenco music.The so called song to call the believers to pray in the Muslim world influenced the Flamenco music in a special way. The Iberian Peninsula (X century) Abulhasam Alí Ben Nafí (Ziryab). A musician in the court. Córdoba Town Hall.
The Northern Christian kingdoms (Aragon and Castile) start the Reconquest in 1.236 and finish with the capture of Granada in 1492 (the Moors are expelled from Spain. The metrics of the Romances and Seguidillas is incorporated to the folklore in Al-Andalús,and later on to the Coplas of the Flamenco. Escena de la Reconquista Cántigas de Santa Maria. Alfonso X (1.260)
The arrival of the the gypsy people —coming from Europe— in the south of Spain takes palce in the XV c. They mix with the Moorish (Moslems convert to Christianity who still keep the musical tradition in Al-Andalus) and absorb the folklore to become the future actors of the Flamencoy, and they (the gypies) also add their Eastern features at the moment of performing. Gypsies come from Punjab region in India, from where they initiated their exodus to Europe between VII y XIV centuries.
During the XVI y XVII centuries, Sevilla y Cádiz were the entrance and exit doors for the commerce between Europe, America and Africa as well as for the cultural exchange. Andalucian dances are exported and they mix up with the native element, bringing back rumbas, guajiras, milongas…, which are, later on, used by the Flamenco. Sevilla, puerto de Indias
Miguel de Cervantes, in his novel “La Gitanilla” (1.613), tells about the future bailaora (dancer) and cantaora (singer) gypsy. The first collection of coplas (songs) to be sung accompanied with the guitar is published at the end of XVIII century (1.788). At the same time we see the birth of the first Flamenco artists in barrio (district) of Triana, in Seville. El Planeta (a cantaor or singer from Càdiz) Cover of Miguel de Cervantes’ novel “La Gitanilla” (the gypsy girl).
In the XIX century, the newspapers of the period (“El Cronista”, “El Noticiero Sevillano”…) tell us about the existence of the Flamenco. Well known European Romantic travellers such as Alejandro Dumas, George Borow… attend fiestas flamencas (Flamenco parties) and comment on them in their books. People find los cantes y bailes flamencos (the Flamenco songs and dances) as a shelter in times of poverty and shortage during the War of Indepence against France (1.808- 1.814) and the crisis of 1898, the year of the end of the Spanish Empire. George Borow, “Zincali, gypsies of Spain” (Zíncali, los gitanos de España). Inglaterra, 1.841. Engraving by Gustave Doré, a French artist of the period.
The Flamenco is danced and sung in the patios sevillanos (Seville courtyards) by the candle light; and from there it goes to “cafés cantantes” (cafeterias where artists sing), fighting to find a better place for this show. Also the first academias de baile (dance schools ) are created, with performances mainly for tourism Cover of the newspaper “Noticiero Sevillano” (1.850), where a dance school at Tarifa Street, directed by D. Miguel Barrera, is advertised. Tablao (stage) of Café Burrero Dance in a Sevillian courtyard (G. Doré)
The first recordings of Flamenco see the light at the beginning of XX century, with the birth of the gramophone, and the main record companies are responsible for the spreading of this art both nationally and internationally. Spanish poets such as Rafael Alberti and Federico García Lorca (“Romancero Gitano”) become interested in Flamenco. Flamenco record cover (cante jondo) A record by Federico García Lorca (piano) and “La Argentinita” (cantaora/singer) about Spanish popular songs (1.931).
As well as the poets, the Spanish composers (Manuel de Falla, Enrique Granados, Isaac Albéniz…) reflect the Flamenco art in their music. In the middle of XX c. the cinema and the cuplé (a type of naughty song) take the place of the Flamenco at the cafés. The Flamenco is then performed in theatres and bullfighting rings and it is known as Flamenco opera, with the company of small orchestras which have the guitar as the main musical instrument. 1st Flamenco Contest organised by Federico García Lorca and Falla. Granada, 1.922 Poster of the Flamenco opera. Granada bullfighting in Granada, 1.935 Luís Yance, one of the first solo guitar players.
ETIMOLOGY OF THE FLAMENCO The origin is unclear. Theories By association of the dance with the movement of the bird flamingo flamenco in Spanish). The musical scale in Mi, the most used in Flamenco, was called Flamenca in the Middle Ages. For the Hispanarab expression “fellah mengu”, in reference to the moriscos (Moorish) who were left without lands during the Reconquest. London: Thomson Learning. (The Arden Shakespeare- Third Series) For the relation of Spain with Flandes (The Low Countries) during the Carlos V´s reign, who was acclaimed with: “Baile al flamenco”. Because the gypsies, the main promoters of this type of music, were called flamencos.
PALOS (Types) OF FLAMENCO (*) THESE ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT: FANDANGO SOLEÁ ALEGRÍAS BULERÍAS SEGUIRIYA TANGOS SAETA (*) Flamenco is also called CANTE JONDO (deep song), for its deepness and tragical character.
El Fandango A Spanish popular dance in pairs from XVIII c., which se flamenquiza (becomes Flamenco) in XIX century. It is one of the first and main types of Flamenco with different variants : malagueñas, verdiales, granaínas…. It has a ternary rhythm (3/4) of 12 tempos and in minor mode, with coplas of four or six octosyllable verses and consonant rhyme. Hay un tiempo pa’ nacer Hay un tiempo pa’ vivir Hay un tiempo pa’ querer Mucho tiempo pa’ sufrir Otro tiempo pa’ querer Y to’ el tiempo pa’ morir
La Soleá It comes from the word soledad, which means solitude and refers to lyrics of of sad songs about loneliness and disillusion. With copla of three octosyllable verses in which the first and the third are asonant. It combines a binary (6/8) and ternary (3/4) rhythm based on the Andalusian style and cadence. Dicen que no vales ná Cuando a mi vera te tengo Vales tú gran caudal
Alegrías It is the result of the mixture between the soleá and the jota aragonesa, during the War of Independence (1.808) It is meant for dance. This type of dance is very bright on the stage and it is also very festive.. It is written in strophes or coplas of four octosyllable verses with the same rhythm as the soleá. It usually begins with the onomatopeyic introduction: ti-ti- ti-tran Yo pegué un tiro al aire Cayó en la arena Confianza en el hombre Nunca la tengas
La Bulería It’s got the same rhythm as the soleá, but it is faster and happier. It is accompanied by dance and claps in fragments of eight times. It is composed of three or four octosyllable verses. It admits improvisation in the rhythm. Esta noche me mudo Me llevo un chisme Yo me llevo el caldero Aunque me tizne
Seguiriya It comes from the seguidilla, Spanish tradicional dance, which has become flamenco with the name of seguiriya. The lyrics of its four verses are sad and they reflect the suffereing of love and death. The dance is deep, solemn and austere. It is accompanied by castagnets. It is one of the basic styles of the flamenco. It combines the binary and ternary rhythms. No soy de esta tierra Ni en ella nací La fortunilla rodando, rodando Me ha traído hasta aquí
El Tango It is the result of the cultural exchange between Andalucia (Cádiz) y America (Cuba). Other dances and songs which were born in the same way were: rumbas, guajiras, colombianas… It’s got a quaternary rhythm and a festive character. Song and dance get together in the same performer with a sensual character. Qué bonita está Triana Cuando le ponen al puente Banderas republicanas
La Saeta A religious song improvised a capella. It is sung in processions during the Holy Week when the different images of Jesus (in the Way of the Cross), the Virgen Mary, etc are carried along the streets. It’s got the style of the cante jondo (flamenco), which is tragic because of the pasion of Jesus. It is a very emotional song. Dijo una voz popular; ¿Quién me presta una escalera para subir al madero para quitarle los clavos a Jesús el Nazareno.