Presentation on theme: "Lesson 7HIS 2100 Rome Review: When Rome finished unifying Italy, there were 5 great powers in the Mediterranean. Who were they? 1. Selucid Monarchy in."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 7HIS 2100 Rome Review: When Rome finished unifying Italy, there were 5 great powers in the Mediterranean. Who were they? 1. Selucid Monarchy in the Near East 2. Ptolemaic Monarchy in Egypt 3. The Kingdom of Macedonia (Northern Greece 4. Carthage in the Western Mediterranean (Africa) Question. How long did it take for Rome to conquer all of these powers? Answer. 120 years. Rome ruled the Mediterranean in 146 BCE.
Punic Wars First Punic War (264-241 BCE) Carthage was founded in 800 BCE by Phoenicians in the North of Africa, which became a prosperous commercial centre. The Carthaginian empire covered North Africa and the coastal regions of southern Spain, Sardinia, Corsica and western Sicily.
Question. What did Rome have to fear from Carthage? Selucid Monarchy
Answer. Rome feared that Carthage wanted to conquer the northern Sicilian city of Messana. Rome’s reasons: Rome was allies with Sicily and feared that if they did not defend Sicily, Carthage would attack them or interfere with their trade routes. Rome attacked Carthage in North Africa and lost an entire army as well as hundreds of ships in battle to a storm on the Mediterranean. Rome continued to fight, benefitting from allied support throughout Italy. Carthage eventually surrendered to Sicily.
Unintentional Acquisition of an Overseas Empire Three years later, Rome seized the islands of Corsica and Sardinia from a weakened Carthage. The islands were made into provinces of Rome. Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) Carthage had colonies and an army in Spain, commanded by the military genius Hannibal (247-183). Hannibal's army was professional and well seasoned and included war elephants for charging enemy lines. 26,000 men crossed the mountains into Italy with 15,000 more recruited along the way. Hannibal’s army circled and destroyed Rome’s largest army, which had 60,000 men (Battle of Cannae 216 BCE).
Hannibal Allied with Philip V of Macedon after defeating the Romans at Cannae Rome learned its lesson and did not engage Hannibal’s army face to face. Hannibal did not have the power to conquer the city of Rome, but remained nearby. Question. Was Rome at risk? If yes, and you were a Roman General, what would you have done? Rome decided to attack Carthage while Hannibal was still in Italy, forcing Hannibal to retreat to return home to protect his homeland of Carthage. Until Hannibal had faced Rome, in North Africa, he had won every battle he had ever fought. In 202 BCE Hannibal was defeated in ZAMA and had no choice but to surrender Spain, including the elephants and navy, to Rome.
What area of the Mediterranean did Rome not yet control? Selucid Monarchy
The Macedonian Wars Rome feared that Macedon, having allied with Hannibal, may attack Rome. Rome attacked Macedonia and won it in 205 BCE. Macedonia still had influence in Greece, which was a protectorate of Rome. Rome fought two more wars with Macedonia and in 148 BCE Rome created the province of Macedonia. The Hellenistic Kingdoms lay ahead, in the Near East and Asia Minor. Question. What countries / states remained? Answer. Seleucia, Egypt and Pergamum.
REVIEW: Mediterranean Cities that came under Roman Political and Economic Governance Selucia – Hellenistic city on Tigris River, 30 km from current city of Baghdad. Leading trade centre in Mesopotamia. Populated by 600,000 Macedonians, Greeks, Jews and Syrians. Pergamum – The Attalids came to power in 281 BC and were among the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. In 241- 197 BC, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again (197-158 BC), against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor. The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. They would support the growth of towns by sending skilled artisans and remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain some independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites. When Attalus III (138-133 BC) died without an heir in 133 BCE, he gave the whole of Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war. Egypt – Located on the border of the Middle East and Africa and still a strong economic centre.
Rome’s intervention was akin to being a protector of Greece and led to their involvement in Hellenistic kingdoms of the near East and Asia Minor. The Hellenistic World became client kingdoms of Rome and lost their freedom to deal with foreign affairs as they chose. ROME was now Master of Mediterranean. Third Punic War (146 BCE) Although Carthage was no longer a threat, Rome started an unnecessary / irrational war of total destruction on Carthage in 149 BCE.
Warning Signs of Future Roman Values The total destruction of the North African city of Carthage and sale, into slavery of all survivors, was a sign of the deterioration / loss of Senatorial / Political leadership and control that was to become more obvious in the future. Question. Can anyone predict what might happen in the years to come?
BONUS MARKS – due next class – no late submissions will be accepted for bonus work Name______________________Student number_________________ Email address____________________ Directions: This is independent work. Read: Page 97 beginning with The Decline of Rome, to page 99. Stop just before Tribal Migrations. Ask Mr. Silver for clarification on word definitions and the intent of the message. Format: Assignments must, 1.be typed, double spaced (APA format). 2.include a cover page with Name, student number and email address. 3.be no more than 1.5 pages long. 4.Have the rough work (this page) stapled to the typed version that you submit next class. 5.Provide a response using the REFLECTIVE WRITING GUIDELINES. The questions below are intended to provoke your thinking only. Do not answer these questions. a.What was the political situation in the Roman Empire at this time. What was good or bad about it and why? b.How did different Romans view the actions of their own people. c.What is your opinion on their actions and why do you feel that way? d.Are there any other periods in history that Compare and contrast this discussion point to other periods of history and to the current day. e.Offer your moral and value judgments on what happened. f.Use both sides of the paper to do your rough work.