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 Began with the fall of Rome and lasted until the 15 th century Two general periods:  500-1000 Dark Ages  Gradual recovery from the shock of Rome’s.

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Presentation on theme: " Began with the fall of Rome and lasted until the 15 th century Two general periods:  500-1000 Dark Ages  Gradual recovery from the shock of Rome’s."— Presentation transcript:

1  Began with the fall of Rome and lasted until the 15 th century Two general periods:  500-1000 Dark Ages  Gradual recovery from the shock of Rome’s collapse  1000-1450 Late Middle Ages  Growing interaction with other societies


3 Western medieval Europe faced many problems:  Italy was divided  Spain in hands of Muslims  Frequent invasions  Weak rulers  Subsistence agriculture  Intellectual activity declined  Main forces holding society together were feudalism and the Church

4  Western Europe under attack by invaders  Vikings - Scandinavia  Magyars - Hungary  Muslims - Middle East  Resulted in weak government and lack of durable economic activity beyond farming

5 Vikings used multi-oared long boats to travel along the North Atlantic Coast and inland rivers. Vikings were raiders, but also merchants and fishermen Vikings converted to Christianity


7 Feudalism: general term for the social, political and economic system that emerged Protection  people were vulnerable to constant invasion Population shift  many left cities and moved to the countryside Economic decline  trade contacts were disrupted

8  System of obligations based on landowning  Those who owned land (nobles) granted land and protection to those who did not own land in exchange for service, payments, and goods  Landlords: could afford horses and iron weapons  Vassals: lesser lords who often owned military service to landlords  Feudal relationships started small and local and then spread to extend over entire kingdoms  examples of feudal monarchy in France and England

9  Economic system of feudalism based on relationship between landlords and peasants  Peasants (serfs) worked land on behalf of nobles and in return were given protection  Self sufficient agricultural-based system centered on estates or manors  No market economy – no need to leave manor  Peasants rarely traveled more than 30 miles in their lifetimes


11  living-in-medieval-europe-feudalism- video.htm living-in-medieval-europe-feudalism- video.htm


13  The Pope in Rome was the top authority  Regional churches were headed by bishops who appointed local priests  Political power was decentralized  Clergy were the “educated” during the Dark Ages as they were the few literate in society  Focal point of life for most people was on the activities and rituals of the Church

14  Controlled people’s souls through the sacraments (baptism, communion, etc.)  Threat of excommunication and interdiction (banishment from the Church)  Canon law (religious law) governed both laypeople (members of the church) and the clergy (officials of the church)

15 Pope (head of the Church) Bishops (supervised priests; settled disputes over Church teachings and practices) Priests (gave the sacraments; main contact for most people)

16 How did Europe change economically, politically, socially, religiously, and culturally? What caused these changes?

17  What motivated the Crusades?  Was it primarily a religious motive, or was it something else?  Structured Academic Controversy


19  The population doubled to about 80 million by 1300. May have had to do with warmer climate.  The horse collar and teams of horses used to pull plows increased efficiency of agriculture  Three-field system: planted on two-thirds of land and planted oats on one-third to increase nitrogen


21  Killed one-third of the population  Fewer workers meant serfs, peasants and urban workers could demand freedom and higher wages  Noble and merchant resistance led to peasant revolts  Some serfs moved to cities which weakened manorial system and power of feudal lords


23  English developed the longbow to counter French knights  Greater range, could be loaded more quickly, fired arrows to pierce armor  English used foot soldiers  An army of foot soldiers recruited from common people was more reliable than semi- independent nobles bound by loyalty  Rise of patriotism toward king and country


25  Crusades had brought Europeans in touch with Asian and African merchants who had luxury goods  Towns became centers of shipping and banking  Gradual changes from agriculturally-based rural to commercially-based urban society  Need for coinage for trade with the East  Growth of banking

26  Individuals in the same business or trade working together to improve their economic and social conditions  Stressed security and mutual control of market not individual profit - guild membership was limited - regulated apprenticeship program - discouraged new methods or innovation - guaranteed quality of product


28  Capitalized on proximity to eastern Mediterranean and ties with Muslim and Byzantine merchants  Manufacturing of cloth (Florence) and metal (Milan) created profits to be used for trade  Rise of banking  Displayed wealth by patronizing artists

29  Feudal kingdoms began to dissolve and people were organized along cultural and linguistic (language sp0ken) lines  By the end of the period, Europe had developed a series of separate monarchies (France, England, Spain)

30 Look at the impact of increased trade. How would this undercut manorialism?

31  Muslims and Byzantine scholars kept Classical Greek learning alive  Crusades brought Europe into contact with these works and out of the “dark ages”  Poets began to use vernacular or everyday, local language (instead of Latin)  Growth of universities in Europe

32 Women in Western Europe compared to Islamic societies:  In some ways higher status  Less segregated in religion and less confined in home  No property rights  Increasingly patriarchal over time Feudal society compared to Japan Development of individual nation-states (England & France) as opposed to centralized empire in China

33 Similarities  King & Emperor largely symbolic  Lord-vassal relationship  Samurai and knights served higher lords  Loyalty, bravery, and honor  bushido vs. chivalry  Family lineage important

34 Europe  Goal was survival  Relationships based on legal code  Only firstborn son was heir  Cult of chivalry—women placed on pedestal  Some contempt for arts and learning Japan  Seppuku or hari-kari; stoic acceptance of death  Relationships based on moral code  Any son adopted was heir  Women should have samurai attitude—be tough  Interest in arts and learning

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