Presentation on theme: "Introduction. The Largest Event in History Most Significant event in World History – WWI – European War with roughly 10 million dead – WWII – Fighting."— Presentation transcript:
The Largest Event in History Most Significant event in World History – WWI – European War with roughly 10 million dead – WWII – Fighting on 6 out of 7 Continents and near 55 million dead (1/2 were civilians) Viewed as a Drama/Tragedy (Good vs. Evil) Giants of figures – Roosevelt – Hitler – Churchill
How to Study WWII How to study an event like World War II – Don’t Glorify War – Understand how the stage was set – Understanding the enormity of the war – Emphasis on the values that won the war – Personal connections – Connections to today Where does our prior knowledge come from? – Oral history? – Literature? – Film? Handout 1: Considerations when Teaching/Learning WWII History Handout 2: Dale Dye : On Point in Hollywood
How it all Began - WWI World War I – 1914 – peace shattered by assassination of Francis Ferdinand (heir to the Austrian throne – the Hapsburg Empire) – 1908 – Austria annexed the Balkans (which included the city of Sarajevo) Ferdinand went to Sarajevo to improve relations between the Hapsburgs and the Slavic people of Bosnia
Slavic Peoples – Russians – Ukrainians – Belarus – Poles – Czechs – Slovaks – Bulgarians – Yugo Slavs – Serbs Within the Balkans -Greeks -- Macedonia -- Romania -Bosnia -Slovenia -Croatia
Causes of WWI MAIN (Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism) – Nationalism is the love that hates – Serbs have a secret society (The Black Hand) and planned to assassinate Francis Ferdinand on his trip to Sarajevo Other Causes – German / French Rivalry – Russian / Austrian Rivalry – Question about the Balkans – Balance of power in Europe – Imperialism / Colonialism
WWI is the Turning Point Empires in 1914 – British, French (not Empires in name, but posses large colonial claims) – Ottoman Empire (Turks) (Sick Man of Europe) Balkans – Russian Empire Latvia Lithuania Estonia Poland Ukraine Belarus – Austrian Empire Hungary Checks Slovaks Parts of later Yugoslavia – Germany? Where do they fit?
Long Range Factors of WWI German / French Rivalry – 1871 a New unified Germany established by Otto Von Bismark Rise of New Germany will create an imbalance of power in Europe – result in the fall of France? Germany takes territory of Alsace and Lorraine from the French France wants them back as well as revenge After 1871 Bismark will conserve what he has and isolate the French from any ally – France needed allies to make any type of war on Germany
Long Range Factors of WWI Bismark wants to prevent any attack by France – Creates an alliance in 1882 (Germany, Austria, Italy) Bismark believes that he doesn’t need to worry about England – they won’t act unless the balance of power is changed and they are threatned The Kaiser William I dies – William II comes to power William II comes in conflict with Bismark and forces him to resign William II becomes his own foreign minister – and doesn’t renew a peace treaty with Russia in 1888
Long Range Factors of WWI Franco / Russian alliance in 1894 – A military alliance – Both are afraid of the Germans In the 1890s Britain began to see Germany as a threat – Wm II wanted to build up the German navy – The naval race began and Britain abandoned its “splendid isolationism” puts aside differences with France and Russia – Form the Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia)
Long Range Factor - Imperialism Imperialism – “Advanced” countries taking over less “advanced” – 1 st World countries will take over 3 rd World countries (Marxist idea) – Economic motives? – May be not Diamonds in Africa – Prestige Anybody who is somebody has colonies – Idealistic Christianize and modernize the 3 rd World countries
Long Range Factor - Imperialism Africa – Britain: Egypt, Suez Canal – which led straight to India – Italy: Libya – French: Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia Asia – British: Malaya (including Singapore), Hong Kong – French: Indo-China (includes Laos, Vietnam) – Dutch: East Indies (Indonesia) – US: Philippians, Guam – German: Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands
The Eastern Question – The Balkans Ottoman Empire controlling the Balkans – Turks have taken over the Empire – Balkans hate them because they were Muslim – In the late 1800s referred to as the “Sick Man of Europe” – a sign of the Turks slipping Big powers are getting interested in the Balkans – Russia and Austria both interested in the straits (warm water ports for Russia) – Most people there are Slavic (Serbs) (Russia is the big Slavic Father) Similar root language and religion (orthodox) 1908 Austria annexed Bosnia
Balkan Nationalism Most aggressive Balkan country is Serbia – In 1878 Serbia became independent with very aggressive leaders – Have a desire to establish a grater Serbian state – This is a threat to Austria (annex Bosnia in 1908 which has mostly Serbs living there)
The July Crisis Leaders are not going to solve rising tensions between countries – Not determined to avoid war Assassination in Serbia – The assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife tied to Serbia – Austria can now militarily take over – but wont act without approval of Germany Germany issues them a blank check
War Begins in Europe In 1914, a Serbian nationalist killed the Austro- Hungarian heir to the throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand). The domino-effect began where: – Austria declared war on Serbia, which was supported by Russia, – Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany, which declared war on Russia and France, then invaded neutral Belgium, and pulled Britain into the war and igniting World War I. Americans were thankful that the Atlantic Ocean separated the warring Europeans from the U.S.
Planning The German Schlieffen Plan – Germany’s plan to fight a two front war – Attack France first (through neutral Belgium) knock France out of the war Then attack the “slow mobilizing” Russia – Germans came very close to achieving this plan Germans were stopped just outside France
Stalemate, Slaughter, Attrition Germany and France are now stalemated – From October 1914 until March 1918 the front line did not move more than 10 miles in either direction “No Man’s Land” One continuous front from Switzerland to the North Sea A defensive war with technology (machine gun)
Russians Out, Americans In Russian Revolution – After Tannenberg Disaster Russians fall into a Communist Revolution * On Aug. 13, 1914 - Russians invade East Prussia from the south and east * This attack was a distraction for the Allies on the Western Front * Germans quickly encircle and destroy Russian troops * 30,000 Russians killed, 92,000 captured * German casualties at 13,000
Russians Out, Americans In Lusitania - sunk by German U-Boat (sub) – Was a British passenger liner (accused of carrying war supplies for Britain from U.S. – killed 128 Americans – Germans had warned Allies in the newspaper Zimmerman Note – German foreign minister sent telegram to Mexico wanting them to join the Central Powers – Mexico would get New Mexico, Texas, Arizona
http://www.firstworldwar.co m/audio/overthere.htm America Goes to War April 2, 1917 President Wilson asks Congress for declaration of war Wilson wants to “Make the world safe for Democracy” The U.S. tips the scales and ends the stalemate in Europe
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