Presentation on theme: "Alexander the GreatThe philosophers are from Ancient Greece Christianity Islam Judaism Archipelago, Mountains, Ring of Fire, Fishing industry Bell Ringer."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander the GreatThe philosophers are from Ancient Greece Christianity Islam Judaism Archipelago, Mountains, Ring of Fire, Fishing industry Bell Ringer Describe the geography of Japan Name three monotheistic religions Where are the philosophers Aristotle, Plato and Socrates from? The spread of Hellenistic Culture is credited to whom? (Hellenistic: blend Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian cultures)
English Reformation Protestant movement moves into England
Review The Middle Ages of Europe gave way to the intellectual movement known as Humanism. Humanism and a sense of inquiry (questioning) created the Renaissance, and revived interest in the Classical works of Ancient Greece and Rome. Renaissance artists used perspective and classical skills to create life like paintings and sculptures.
Reformation The Renaissance also resulted in questions about the Catholic Church and its authority. Many people saw the Catholic church as corrupt as the clergy used church funds on worldly pleasures and activities. Reformers like Luther were also frustrated with the selling of indulgences, which have no basis in the Bible. Calvin and Luther founded new Christian sects and stressed that Salvation was through Faith alone.
Protestants spread The use of the printing press allowed the ideas of Luther and John Calvin to spread quickly. Protestants joined several sects, but all were “protesting” against the corrupt Catholic church. The Protestants controlled most of Northern Europe, while the Roman Catholics kept control of the West and South.
English Reformation The English Reformation is led by King Henry VIII. Unlike Luther and Calvin, King Henry wished to end the Pope’s control over the English Church. He was not motivated by religious morality. The English king wanted to establish the English Monarchy as the head of the English church. Monarchy- Government led by a king or queen
King Henry VIII King Henry VIII was married to Catherine of Aragon for 18 years, but only had one surviving daughter, Mary Tudor. Henry wanted a son to succeed him to the throne (an example of a Dynasty). Henry and Catherine married through the Catholic Church, which does not allow for divorce. So Henry asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage. Annul- Declare invalid or void
Henry’s Annulment The pope refused to annul, or cancel, Henry and Catherine’s marriage. Catherine’s nephew was the Holy Roman Emperor, and the pope was scared to anger him. Henry was outraged and fought back, beginning the reformation of the English church.
Henry VIII’s Reformation Henry passed a series of laws that made him the head of the English Church. He appointed an archbishop of his choosing who agreed to annul the wedding to Catherine. The English Monarch is established as the head of the English church, which is renamed the Anglican Church Henry doesn’t make many changes to worship, just who is in charge.
Religious Turmoil After Henry VIII dies, his son Edward I takes the throne. Edward is only 10, and relies on the advise of his father’s many advisors. These advisors tell Edward to push for more Protestant reforms, which angers the Catholic leaning English people. England is torn apart by religious fighting as the King pushes through reforms against his people’s wishes. When Edward dies at 16 England is in religious turmoil.
King Henry’s six wives After divorcing Catherine of Aragon, Henry weds Anne Boleyn, Catherine's lady in waiting (maid) Anne Boleyn becomes pregnant but the child is miscarried. She is unable to give him an heir so he charges her with adultery, and beheads her. Henry’s next wife, Jane Seymour, provides him with an heir, named Edward. Jane dies from complications with the birth and Henry mourns for three years. He next marries Anne from Germany, but finds her unattractive and divorces her. Then marries the very young Catherine Howard, who began cheating on him. Catherine was beheaded for her crimes. Henry’s last wife was Catherine Parr, and after attempting to ban all books, she was kept under close watch.
Mary Tudor After Henry VIII the Protestant reformation was carried on by his young son Edward. Edward angered many of the Catholics left in England by pushing many changes within the English Church. Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry’s first wife, took the throne. Mary was a devout Catholic and began persecuting the protestants. This made her terribly unpopular and she feared she would lose the throne.
Elizabeth I Elizabeth was Mary’s half sister, and was locked away for many years due to Mary’s paranoia. When Mary died, Elizabeth took over the throne. She was a very skilled leader and created a religious compromise between the Catholics and Protestants.
Elizabeth’s compromise 1)Adopted English for Anglican ceremonies 2)Allowed the Clergy to keep fancy robes 3)Kept the Book of Common prayer, with prayers and rules for Anglicans. Despite the compromises, Elizabeth kept the monarch at the head of the Anglican Church.
The Terrible Tudors The Tudor dynasty is full of corruption, bad deeds and religious turmoil. As such, many refer to them as the Terrible Tudors. King Henry VIII: Founded the Anglican Church because he wasn’t granted an annulment (divorce) King Edward: Ruled England at a young age and was influenced by advisors instead of his people Queen Mary Tudor: Re-affirmed Catholic values and punished protestant Anglicans Queen Elizabeth I: Reached a compromise in the English church, established a stable Anglican Church with the Monarchy in charge
Catholic Reform Concerned about the number of converts from Catholicism to Protestantism, Pope Paul III began reform within the Catholic church He organized the Council of Trent ( ) to establish catholic practices and reforms: 1)Salvation through faith AND good Deeds 2)Bible is one but not the ONLY source of religious truth 3)Began punishing corrupt and worldly clergy
The Inquisition The Inquisition began in Spain, but was adopted by the Catholic Church to track down heresies (people who challenged the Church) The Inquisition used secret testimonies, tortures and even execution to get rid of these dissenters. The Inquisition resulted in a number new torture methods and witch hunts.
Witch Hunts AS the search for heresies continued the people began turning out witches. Most witches were poor peasants, herbalists or even beggars. The witch hunts are seen as a way of scapegoating. In a time when the political atmosphere was in turmoil, the people became untrusting and looked to blame someone.
Law and Order Law and order prior to the establishment of parliament in England was often done by Ordeal. Trials were conducted and those pleading not-guilty had to go through an ordeal. Most of these ordeals looked for intervention by God to prove innocence.
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius founded a new Catholic order known as the Jesuits. Ignatius and his followers followed strict discipline and were morally and spiritually devout. Jesuits had to undergo intense training and were completely obedient to the church. They travelled throughout Europe pushing Catholic reform and converting Christians back to Catholicism
Saint Teresa of Avila Teresa was the daughter of rich merchants. She joined a convent of nuns at a young age, but was disappointed by the lack of order and religious devotion. Teresa founded her own convent, stressing prayer and religious duty over all else. The nuns in her new convent ate little and slept rarely. As news of her strict convent spread, the Catholic church asked her to reform other convents and monasteries
Results The Catholic reformation had several important results: 1)Stopped the rapid spread of the Protestant Religion 2)Returned the church to devout piety 3)Europe remained divided between Protestants in the North and Catholics in the South 4)Hundreds of thousands were killed by inquisition, religious attacks and witch hunts. New protestant sects: Anglican Calvinists Lutherans Devout- Having deep religious feelings and commitment
Causes and Effects Long-term Causes Immediate Causes Immediate effects Long-term effects Roman Catholic Church becomes more worldly The selling of indulgences causes Martin Luther to post the 95 Theses Printing press spreads the 95 Theses and the German language Bible Founding of Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Presbyterian and other Protestant Churches Roman Catholic Churches launch reforms Inquisition tracks down heresies Protestant Reformation Time of change and questioning the Roman Catholic Church