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1 The Reformation A Movement to Reform the Church.

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1 1 The Reformation A Movement to Reform the Church

2 2 The Protestant Reformation

3 3 Protestant Reformation To protest = To object To protest = To object To reform = To change for the better To reform = To change for the better The Protestant Reformation: The Protestant Reformation: – Protested practices of the Catholic Church. – It began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church.

4 4 Underlying causes of the Reformation Humanism: The movement for the individual to take control of their lives. Humanism: The movement for the individual to take control of their lives. The Renaissance, led people to question the authority of the church and place greater faith in human reason. The Renaissance, led people to question the authority of the church and place greater faith in human reason. The rise of nation-states led monarchs to resent the power of the pope (by appointing bishops who controlled vast amounts of land) in their countries. The rise of nation-states led monarchs to resent the power of the pope (by appointing bishops who controlled vast amounts of land) in their countries.

5 5 Underlying Causes of the Reformation Economic restrictions such as the ban on usury, or the lending of money at interest, created opposition among members of the new middle class. Economic restrictions such as the ban on usury, or the lending of money at interest, created opposition among members of the new middle class. People resented the mandatory tithe (10% tax). People resented the mandatory tithe (10% tax). Corruption within the Catholic Church caused a crisis of faith among believers. Corruption within the Catholic Church caused a crisis of faith among believers.

6 6 Pre- Luther Reformers John Hus of Czechoslovakia and Savonarola of Florence, Italy called for reform of the Catholic Church in the 1400’s. John Hus of Czechoslovakia and Savonarola of Florence, Italy called for reform of the Catholic Church in the 1400’s. They called for an end of corruption, higher moral standards, and simplification of church practices. They called for an end of corruption, higher moral standards, and simplification of church practices. Both were executed! Both were executed!

7 7 The Sparks Oddly enough, the start of the Reformation belongs to Renaissance art. Oddly enough, the start of the Reformation belongs to Renaissance art. Michelangelo designed the new St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican. Michelangelo designed the new St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican. Because of the expense of the project the Roman Catholic Church began to increase the sell of “Indulgences” to raise funds across Europe. Because of the expense of the project the Roman Catholic Church began to increase the sell of “Indulgences” to raise funds across Europe.

8 8 Martin Luther German born German born Quiet youth, yet talented student who was intimidated by the strict orders of the Church. Quiet youth, yet talented student who was intimidated by the strict orders of the Church. Attends University of Erfurt Attends University of Erfurt – Sent to study law. July 2, Luther is nearly struck by lightning. July 2, Luther is nearly struck by lightning. – Survives and swears to St. Anne, “I will become a monk!” Luther became a monk and studied theology at the University of Wittenberg, earning a Ph.D in Bible Studies. Luther became a monk and studied theology at the University of Wittenberg, earning a Ph.D in Bible Studies.

9 9 Martin Luther In 1517, the papal indulgences seller came to Wittenberg, Germany In 1517, the papal indulgences seller came to Wittenberg, Germany On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther posted a list of complaints against the Catholic Church called The Ninety-Five Theses, or questions for debate. On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther posted a list of complaints against the Catholic Church called The Ninety-Five Theses, or questions for debate.

10 10 Aftermath (1) Taken as an attack on the church, Luther is called to recant his beliefs by the Pope, and later, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Taken as an attack on the church, Luther is called to recant his beliefs by the Pope, and later, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. “Here I Stand” was Luther’s reply, meaning to stay true to his conscience. “Here I Stand” was Luther’s reply, meaning to stay true to his conscience. The Diet of Worms acknowledges Luther as a heretic and calls for his execution. (Diet is a general assembly, and Worms is a city in Germany) The Diet of Worms acknowledges Luther as a heretic and calls for his execution. (Diet is a general assembly, and Worms is a city in Germany)

11 11 Aftermath (2) Luther’s ideas received support from the Christian Humanist and the German Princes, who see this as a means of getting more power. Luther’s ideas received support from the Christian Humanist and the German Princes, who see this as a means of getting more power. Luther, under the protection of a German prince, further develops his new theology, and works on the German interpretation of the Bible Luther, under the protection of a German prince, further develops his new theology, and works on the German interpretation of the Bible

12 12 Luther’s New Theology Catholic 1)Salvation through Faith and Works 2)Theology is based on the Bible and other canonized writings 3)One reaches God through the Priests of the Church, who play a very important role in the church. Protestant 1)Salvation through Faith alone 2)Theology is based on the Sole Authority of the Bible 3)One reaches God by serving as their own priest, placing the importance on the individual.

13 13 Salvation through Faith Alone The Catholics thought works, such as the buying of indulgences, lessens your time in Purgatory (an unpleasant ‘waiting area’ before you are admitted into Heaven, based on your life on earth.) The Catholics thought works, such as the buying of indulgences, lessens your time in Purgatory (an unpleasant ‘waiting area’ before you are admitted into Heaven, based on your life on earth.) The Protestant believes that only by God’s grace are you saved; therefore, you cannot earn your way into heaven. The Protestant believes that only by God’s grace are you saved; therefore, you cannot earn your way into heaven. – Eph. 2: 8-9

14 14 Bible as the Sole Authority Catholics study and believe the Bible and the works of men, such as Saint Thomas Aquinas, and hold them equally important. Catholics study and believe the Bible and the works of men, such as Saint Thomas Aquinas, and hold them equally important. The Protestants believe (for the most part) that if is not in the Bible, it is not true theology. The Protestants believe (for the most part) that if is not in the Bible, it is not true theology. – Protestants practice only 2 of the Catholic’s 7 sacraments – No Purgatory, since it is not Biblical – The invention of the printing press allows the Bible to be read by the common people.

15 15 Priesthood of the Believer The Catholic Priest exercises great authority over the individuals of the congregation, by forgiving their sins (Confession) and administering the sacraments of the church. The Catholic Priest exercises great authority over the individuals of the congregation, by forgiving their sins (Confession) and administering the sacraments of the church. Protestants believe that each individual is responsible for their own spiritual well-being or relationship with God. Protestants believe that each individual is responsible for their own spiritual well-being or relationship with God.

16 16 Calvinism

17 17 Calvinism Based on the teachings of John Calvin. Predestination- only those chosen by God would get salvation. 1. Moral lives 2. Hard Work 3. Simple lives

18 18 John Calvin Lawyer from Geneva, Switzerland. Lawyer from Geneva, Switzerland. Dedicated to humanist reform of the Church. Dedicated to humanist reform of the Church. Leads a protestant revolt in Leads a protestant revolt in – Geneva does not follow. – 1535 Protestant Canton of Bern- Spread of Protestantism throughout Switzerland and Geneva.

19 19 Beliefs of Calvinism Predestination Predestination – Since God knew the future, humans had no real choice in salvation; God has already preordained who is to obtain salvation. Moral Behavior / Protestant Work Ethic Moral Behavior / Protestant Work Ethic – Calvinists were noted for their hard work with a good attitude. – Calvinists would not gamble, dance, swear, dress elegantly, etc. (Think Pilgrims) The Church should govern the State. The Church should govern the State. – With a strong church there is no need for separate civil government.

20 20 Anglicanism

21 21 Politics and Church Henry VIII of England at first supports the Catholic cause against Luther by writing the Defense of the Seven Sacraments. Henry VIII of England at first supports the Catholic cause against Luther by writing the Defense of the Seven Sacraments. Because of his support, the Pope gave the King of England the additional title “Defender of the Faith.” Because of his support, the Pope gave the King of England the additional title “Defender of the Faith.”

22 22 Political Expediency When his older, first wife failed to produce a male heir, Henry sought a divorce. When his older, first wife failed to produce a male heir, Henry sought a divorce. Since his wife, Catherine of Aragon, was the niece of the King of Spain, the Pope refused. Since his wife, Catherine of Aragon, was the niece of the King of Spain, the Pope refused.

23 23 The Church of England In a unique move, Henry breaks away from the Catholic church and created the Church of England or Anglicanism, with himself as the Head of the Church In a unique move, Henry breaks away from the Catholic church and created the Church of England or Anglicanism, with himself as the Head of the Church – He keeps the title “Defender of the Faith” He grants himself a divorce and continues his search for a queen to give him a male heir. He grants himself a divorce and continues his search for a queen to give him a male heir.

24 24 Anglicanism The Church of England keeps many of the practices and theology of the Catholic Church. The Church of England keeps many of the practices and theology of the Catholic Church. The next 100 years will be a struggle between the high church Anglicans and the Calvinistic Puritans. The next 100 years will be a struggle between the high church Anglicans and the Calvinistic Puritans. The American branch of the Church of England is the Episcopalian church. The American branch of the Church of England is the Episcopalian church.

25 The Wives of King Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon – Divorced Anne Boleyn – Beheaded Jane Seymour – Died Anne of Cleves – Divorced Catherine Howard – Beheaded Catherine Parr - Survived 25

26 26 The Counter-Reformation A series of reforms instituted by the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation.

27 27 Society of Jesus Jesuits founded by Ignatius of Loyola. –I–Inspired while recovering from being wounded in France. –R–Reads classic Christianity- impressed by the absolute sacrifice of the saints and martyrs. Call for a return to the strictest and most uncompromising obedience to the authority of the Church and its hierarchy.

28 28 The Jesuits By 1630, 15,000 all over the world. Their mission: –T–The elimination of heretics who refused to obey the Church, including Protestants and non- Christians.

29 29 Inquisition The Catholic Church’s system to weed out heretics of the faith. The Catholic Church’s system to weed out heretics of the faith. Used torture as a means of determining guilt or innocence. Used torture as a means of determining guilt or innocence. – Those found guilty were usually burned at the stake, to purify their body in hope to go to heaven. – Witchcraft trials (although Protestants also did this.)

30 30 Exploration Many Catholic countries such as Spain and Portugal sought to expand Roman Catholicism in to the New World and the Far East. Many Catholic countries such as Spain and Portugal sought to expand Roman Catholicism in to the New World and the Far East. – God, Gold, and Glory Roman Catholicism becomes the religion of South America and the Philippines, where Spain was in control. Roman Catholicism becomes the religion of South America and the Philippines, where Spain was in control.

31 31 Council of Trent called by Pope Paul III in an attempt to reform the Catholic Church called by Pope Paul III in an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Sale of indulgences Sale of indulgences – Maintained the practice but reformed the abuses (1563 the sale of them ends) Bishops Bishops – Must reside in the region they preside over. – May not sell Church offices. Building of Seminaries Building of Seminaries – One Seminary (college to study a religions’ theology) should be built in every diocese so that church doctrine could be fully and accurately represented.


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