3Foundations of Islam Islam began in the 7th century (600 CE) 600s: Conquered Persia, weakened Byzantine Empire, and converted most of the Middle East700s: Muslims controlled Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, much of North Africa, Spain, parts of Italy, Central Asia, and modern Pakistan
4How did Muhammad become Allah’s prophet? Troubled by violence and treacheryOften prayed in desertAngel Gabriel spoke to him, saying god had chosen him to be his prophet.Duty was to proclaim Allah as the 1 and only god.Eventually, Muhammad destroys idols in the Kaaba, but leaves the black stone.
5What is the Significance of Mecca & the Kaaba? Muhammad was born in Mecca (holy city).Muslims go on hajj.Sacred ShrineOriginally housed images of all the Arab godsHouses black stone (possibly a meteorite that Arabs believe was sent from heaven to show Adam and Eve where to build an alter.)
6What does the inside of the Kaaba look like? For years many have wondered what it looks like inside the Kaaba. Relying on second or third hand accounts from those who were lucky enough to enter just wasn't satisfying enough. Then one lucky person who went inside took his camera phone in with him and Millions have seen the shaky footage online.The interior of the Kaaba is now lined with marble and a green cloth covering the upper walls. Fixed into the walls are plaques each commemorating the refurbishment or rebuilding of the House of Allah by the ruler of the day. Watch the video below of the only place on Earth that you can pray in any direction you want, the House of Allah, the first place of worship for mankind – the Kaaba.Inside the Kaaba Video
7Basic Beliefs of Islam? Abraham, Moses, Jesus = Prophets Judgment day (punish/reward)Hell = JahannaamHeaven = JannahImamKoran – words of god through MuhammadMust submit to the will of godMosque5 Pillars of Islam:Allah is only god (Muhammad is a human prophet, but not god)Pray 5x day towards MeccaConcern for PoorFast during RamadanPilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
8Hajj Rituals Walk counter clockwise 7x around Kaaba. Run back and forth between hills of Al-Safa & Al-Marwah.Drink from Zamzam well.Go to plain of Mt. Arafat to stand vigil.Spend night in plain of Muzdalifa.Perform symbolic stoning of devil throwing stones at 3 pillars.Shave head, ritual animal sacrifice, celebrate 3 days of Eid al-Adha.
9Student Questions Is Hajj all year long? Hajj is between the 8th and 12th days of the last month of the Islamic calendar. Dates change from year to year. However, you can visit Mecca all throughout the year for umrah, “lesser pilgrimage.”Have people been killed on Hajj due to crowd control?Yes! Crowd control is a problem, so thousands of people have been killed over the years in stampedes, protests and violent outbreaks. The outbreak of disease can also be a problem.How many people make the Hajj?About 2 million people.
10Student Questions Can a non-Muslim sneak in to the Kaaba? All people in Saudi Arabia, must carry government identification (resident permit, national ID, visa) and that identification identifies you as Muslim or not. (All Saudi’s are assumed Muslim.) Checkpoints along the highway to Mecca stop passengers to check their identification. If you are not Muslim, you will be sent back.If a non-Muslim is found in the holy city, they will be punished. Usually deportation or jail.Can Sunni & Shiites take the Hajj together?Yes! But they should travel in groups together and at times fights will break out between them.
11What are Women’s Roles in Society? Koran gave them the right to inherit and control property.Men can Divorce, but have to return dowry.Forbid killing of unwanted baby girls.Excluded from public places.Secluded within the home.Protected by male relatives.Men have complete authority over women.Must obey husband/father, raise kids, and manage household.
12Discuss Caliphs and Different Dynasties. Caliph = Religious and political leader, successor to MuhammadTheocratic – political and religiousUmayyad DynastyMade Damascus (Syria)Competing Branches: Sunni (90%)/Shiite (10%)Differ over who was the rightful successor to Muhammad.Shiite – loyal to religious leader who could be traced back to Muhammad’s familySunni – Can be elected or pickedArabic is the official language of the Muslim world.A tax was placed on those who did not convert – led to rebellions.Discontent = Violence = New Dynasty = Abbasid Dynasty
13Abbasid Caliphate750 – 1258 CEGolden Age of Classical Islamic CultureStrong, peaceful, stable CaliphsEconomic unity, trade, skilled craftsmenBuilt Capital at Baghdad (Iraq)Began to splinter in the 900s, fell to Mongols
14Spread of Islam to Africa Beginning in the 600s, spread all across North Africa, and gradually to sub-Saharan Africa.Some groups remained Christian: Kush, Axum, Ethiopia, parts of Egypt.Brought by Arab traders overland through Sahara caravans or by Indian Ocean.Arab slave tradeBerbers: nomadic desert herders
15Rise of the Turks - MaliMost powerful Islamic state in western sub-Saharan AfricaNiger RiverImportant trade routeTraded gold, salt, ivory, animal skins, slavesTimbuktuMansa MusaOral storytelling and song-making“Son-Jara” or Sundiata – epic poem telling the story of Sundiata, the founder of the Mali empire.
16Who were the Turks? Nomadic tribes from the foothills of Central Asia. Mamluks – Turkish cavalry warriors brought to Middle East to serve in Arab armies. Convert to Islam.Seljuks – patrons of Persian art, literature, culture; weakened Byzantine Empire, ushered in the Crusades.
17Middle East & the Crusades Christian Europeans established “kingdoms” in the Middle East after the 1st Crusade.No group was able to organize an effective resistance.Saladin – recaptured Jerusalem, drove back the 3rd Crusade.By the end of the 13th century, Europeans expelledMongols destroyed Abbasid Caliphate in 1258 CEDecentralization
18The Ottoman TurksRose to prominence in 1300s, lasted until early 20th century.Served Seljuks as vassals, then founded independent state.Advanced fleet and armies (gunpowder artillery)1453 CE – Fall of Constantinople, fall of Byzantine EmpireStruggle against Christian Europe
21Authority in Islam Sunni (90%)/Shiite (10%) Differ over who was the rightful successor to Muhammad.Shiite – loyal to religious leader who could be traced back to Muhammad’s familySunni – Can be elected or pickedSo, they don’t recognize the same authority in Islam – kind of like the way Catholics and Protestants are all Christians and have the same Bible, but only Catholics recognize the authority of the pope. And like Catholics and Protestants, both Sunnis and Shiites have their own religious holidays, customs and shrines.
23Why are they still fighting? Fighting in Iraq Highlights Age - Old ConflictIn addition to who is successor, their interpretations of the Qu’ran vary. Sunni’s do not consider Shiites to be proper Muslims.Sunni’s are a minority in Iraq, but they controlled politics.2003 – US invaded Iraq, Saddam Hussein over thrown, and Shiites took power and revenge.New Shiite Prime Minister cracked down on Sunni protests.Extremist rebels in Syria crossed the border and promoted extremism among Sunni’s. (Islamic State of Iraq & Syria = ISIS)Iraq’s army has trouble stopping extremist rebels. Since the US withdrew in 2011, no one is there to help them.These extremist groups have ties to terrorist organizations.
24What is a Jihad? “Holy War” Struggle against those who do not believe in the Islamic god and do not acknowledge submission to Muslims.Inter spiritual struggle.
25Terrorist Organizations: What’s the Difference? ISISAl QaedaUsed more conventional military tactics (rifles/grenades)More brutal –beheading, social mediaMore appealing to young peopleWants to attack USFunded by selling oil on black marketWants to carry out attacks that seize attention from international media (9/11)Brutal, but not as bad – doesn’t want to turn recruits offLess appealing to young peopleHas attacked the USFunded by donations/donors
26All this is taking place on the other side of the world All this is taking place on the other side of the world. Why should I care?Islam is a global religion.~12 million Muslims live in the United States.America has significant strategic and military interests in the region.The number of Muslims is expected to rise by 35 percent in the next 20 years, to reach 2.2 billion people.
28Why don’t Muslims eat pork? Some Jews and Christians also do not eat pork.Although the clip below is the answer spoken by a Christian minister, the answer to this question is the same.Why Muslims don't eat pork?
29Women in Islam Hijab (Head scarf) Koran gave legal and economic status, right to inherit and control propertyUpon divorce, woman received dowry back.Excluded from public view, secluded from homeCare of husbands/sons/familyObey husband, manage householdMale authority
30Islamic MarriagesPurpose = preserve the religion through the creation of a family.Polygyny is allowed for men, not women. Men may have up to 4 wives if they can treat them equally. This practice is declining and illegal in some areas, but 150 countries in Africa, Middle Eat, & 3rd world countries still allow it.Most marriages are arranged, but arrangement is not required.Imam can help you find a match.Matchmaking websites can help you find a match.Homosexuality is forbidden and condemned by the Qu’ran.Men can marry a Christian or Jew, but no other nonbeliever. Women must marry a Muslim.
31Islamic Divorce Khula = when a woman initiates a divorce. Can only have a divorce for 2 reasons:If she can prove her husband has not had intercourse with her in 2 months.If husband has not provided food and shelterWomen have to repay dowry and forfeit child custody.Talaq = Man initiates the divorceHe only has to say “I divorce you” 3 times, and it is official.
32Muslim Civilization Very wealthy Blended with Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Persian, and Indian culturesRole of non-Muslims in empireTrade in the MediterraneanAbbasid Baghdad – libraries, hospitals, palaces public gardens, street lighting
33Medicine, Math, Science Use of Arabic numbers, studied Euclid Physician Razi – Hawi (medical encyclopedia), symptoms of smallpox and measlesIbn Sina (Avicenna) – Cannon of MedicineAstronomy – earth round, circumference, compass, and astrolabeGunpowder weaponry
34Influence on Culture Madrasas – Religious Colleges Islamic Law – ShariaSharia law can not be altered, but Imam’s have a little flexibility regarding interpretation.Most intrusive and strict legal system in the world, especially against women.
35SOME Sharia Law• Theft is punishable by amputation of the right hand. • Criticizing or denying any part of the Qu’ran is punishable by death. • Criticizing or denying Muhammad is a prophet is punishable by death. • A Muslim who becomes a non-Muslim is punishable by death. • A non-Muslim who leads a Muslim away from Islam is punishable by death. • A non-Muslim man who marries a Muslim woman is punishable by death. • A man can marry an infant girl and consummate the marriage when she is 9 years old. • A woman can have 1 husband, but a man can have up to 4 wives; Muhammad can have more. • A man can unilaterally divorce his wife but a woman needs her husband's consent to divorce. • A man can beat his wife for insubordination. • Testimonies of four male witnesses are required to prove rape against a woman. • A woman who has been raped cannot testify in court against her rapist(s). • A woman's testimony in court, allowed only in property cases, carries half the weight of a man's. • A female heir inherits half of what a male heir inherits. • A woman cannot drive a car, as it leads to fitnah (upheaval). • A woman cannot speak alone to a man who is not her husband or relative. • Meat to be eaten must come from animals that have been sacrificed to Allah • Muslims should engage in Taqiyya and lie to non-Muslims to advance Islam.
36Arts & Literature Minarets Ibn Rushd (Averroes) – translated Aristotle, tried to reconcile with ideas of Islam, reasoned no conflict between faith and reason.Omar Khayyam – “the Rubaiyat”The “Arbian Nights”Ibn Battuta – “Travels”Sufism