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Unit 1 Study Guide The Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution.

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1 Unit 1 Study Guide The Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution

2 Study Guide 1a. What was the Renaissance? Description and Meaning: – Critical rebirth of Greek and roman ideals – era of creativity change and innovation – Artists and scholars produced great work – Age of examination and exploration Significance and Impact: – Great art was produced, era of humanism, expression, individuality. – Explored many areas they couldn’t before

3 1b. Why did the Renaissance start in Italy? Geography: peninsular nation-trade Roman ruins-near byzantine Central Europe Were church was centered Economy: Trade Church gave money to artisans Rich people gave money to artisans Society: People were becoming individuals and wanted to live life to the fullest Government: lots of money

4 2a. What was humanism? Definition: – Interest in the ancient world and renewed interest in learning and education The humanities: – Examples: languages, math, history, etc. (the subjects you take) Impact/ effect: – Renewed interest in logical thinking, art, and religion

5 2b. How did the art and literature of the time reflect humanist thought? Examples of individualism: – Portraits (the Mona Lisa – by da Vinci) Secularism: – Art that focuses on worldly matters (Bruegel’s landscapes of peasant life) Idealism: – An ideal society (Utopia by Sir Thomas Moore) Realism: – Detailed Paintings that portray how things really look (Rabbit – by Durer) Skepticism: – Questioning Authority/ Tradition (Copernicus is skeptical about geocentric universe)

6 *3a. How did the Renaissance Expand North? Economic reasons: The printing revolution led more people to read, and more books were sold. Influence of artists: Many art styles emerged; portraits, different color usage, and realism in art. Impact of New Technology: Ideas spread because the printing press

7 3b. Compare and Contrast Northern and Italian Renaissances Similarities in art and literature Individualism: – Artists in both Italy and Northern Europe embrace expressions of individualism EX: Portraits Paintings that focus on individual expressions Realism : – Artists in both embrace realism in their work EX: The rabbit and The David Differences in humanism Secularism:(worldly matters) – Italy: becomes more secular as Catholic church becomes more concerned with political power, etc. – Northern: Martin Luther and Protestant Reformation focus on religion Skepticism: – Italy: Catholic church embraces traditions and older views – Northern: Scientific thinkers, religious leaders all question Catholic authority

8 4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church? Explain the secular interests and practices of the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s. - Indulgences, corruption, less education… What were Indulgences? What were their purpose? – Pieces of paper that the Catholic church sold to lesson a souls time in purgatory for sins they had committed

9 4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church? What were the 95 Theses? How did they spread throughout Europe? – 95 arguments by Luther on why indulgences are bad. – Spread by printing press What were Luther’s 3 major ideals concerning the Christian religion? – Salvation through faith alone – Bible source of all religious truth – Anyone can interpret the bible (don’t need Catholic Church)

10 4. What were the Reasons that led Martin Luther to break away from the Roman Catholic Church? What was the Diet of Worms? What was the result? – Meeting where Luther is ordered by the Pope to recant (take back) his 95 Theses….. Luther refuses and is thrown out of the church

11 5. Compare and contrast the religious views of the Roman Catholics, Martin Luther and John Calvin. What were the major tenets of Christianity that all three believed and taught? – All Christen, believe in the bible, Jesus, etc. How did their views differ on attaining eternal salvation? (reaching Heaven) – Catholics – need good works, and faith – Luther – need JUST faith – Calvin – Predestination (only god can determine who goes to heaven)

12 How did they view the role and interpretation of the Bible? – Catholics – Bible interpreted by the Church – Luther and Calvin – Bible interpreted by ANYONE What differences existed in terms of the leadership and organization of their churches? – Catholics – One leader = Pope – Luther and Calvin – elected council

13 6a. Explain the reasons behind the decision of Henry VIII of England to start the Church of England. Henry VIII’s personal issues: – His wife can no longer have any children and he needs a male heir Secular and political issues: – Without a male heir England could fall into civil war – Catholic church wont let him get divorced because Henry’s wife is related to the Holy Roman Empire and Pope needs his political support

14 6b. How did Henry VIII’s children handle religious issues during their reigns? How did Henry’s reforms continue during the short reign of Edward VI? – Edward VERY protestant Suppress all catholic teaching/ beliefs What happened to Protestantism during the rule of Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary)? – Mary VERY Catholic Brings back Catholicism

15 6b. How did Henry VIII’s children handle religious issues during their reigns? What decisions did Elizabeth I make concerning the religion of England? – Elizabeth Protestant but chooses a middle road and allows some Catholic rituals to remain in Protestant country

16 7a. What was the Catholic Reformation? What were the purpose and goals of the Catholic Reformation in the mid-1500s? – Religious upheaval that sought to reform the church

17 7b. In what ways did it respond to Protestant ideas? What was the role of the Council of Trent? – To help direct the way people should take the reform; To make and start the reformation. Who were the Jesuits? What were their responsiblities? – The Jesuits were missionary soldiers – The spread the catholic faith and protected it.

18 7b. In what ways did it respond to Protestant ideas? What was the Inquisition? What was the Index of Forbidden Books? – The Inquisition was a church council – This court used torture, secret testimony and execution to rid of heresy – The Index of Forbidden Books was a list of works that was against the catholic faith.


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