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Austrian Empire 17 th -18 th centuries. I. Effect of the 30 Years War Any hope of unified “German” Empire dashed – Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Austrian.

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Presentation on theme: "Austrian Empire 17 th -18 th centuries. I. Effect of the 30 Years War Any hope of unified “German” Empire dashed – Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Austrian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Austrian Empire 17 th -18 th centuries

2 I. Effect of the 30 Years War Any hope of unified “German” Empire dashed – Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Austrian ruler in charge of: – Lower/Upper Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, Styria, Tyrol, Bohemia (added during 30 yrs war) – Claimed Hungary too In name only at this point Eastern principality (Transylvania) independent Central Hungary under control of Ottoman Turks

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5 II. Islamic/ Turk Threat 1683 Western Austrian expansion blocked – now look East – opportunity arose in 1683… Vienna sieged in 1683 by expanding Turks – Capital of Austria Euro Christian forces combine – Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, and Poland Prince Eugene of Savoy led forces 1687 Turks pushed back Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) – Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slovenia – Eastern Austrian Empire established

6 III. End of War of Spanish Succession We will explore this war later War’s Treaty of Rastadt (1714) – Gave Austria Spanish Netherlands – Formal recognition of Austrian control of Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, Naples

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8 IV. Division within Monarchy never centralized – Too many nationalities – Was a collection of territories held together by personal union (Hapsburg) Austrian ruler was: – Archduke of Austria – King of Bohemia – King of Hungary Each had its own estates-general, sets of laws, and political life

9 V. Charles VI ( ) Empire seemed fragile due to divisions Charles issued the Pragmatic Sanction in an attempt to preserve the Empire – Hapsburg holdings declared indivisible – Sought internal noble support – Sought international support – Took years – Many damaging concessions made to acquire agreement Charles VI died with no male heir…

10 Maria Theresa was only direct heir… she claimed the throne No sooner was Charles’ body cold… – Many claimants to throne arose – PRAMATIC SANCTION IGNORED!!! Prussia took advantage and took Silesia… Bavaria took advantage and took Hapsburg territory – They even claimed title of HRE!!! France threw support behind Bavaria (and others)

11 VI. War of the Austrian Succession Series of wars ( ) – Prussian invasion of Silesia (Silesian Wars) – Bohemian invasion of Hapsburg territory – French invasion of Netherlands – Etc…. – War everywhere! France v England in India France v England in N America Maria Theresa sought support from England – England feared French hegemony in Europe – Balance of Power issue…

12 Strongest claimant to Austrian throne (other than Maria Theresa) died – Charles Albert died 1745 – His son gave up claims to throne Tired of continued warfare… Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle signed (1748) – All previous territories returned except Silesia (remained in Prussian hands) – Maria Theresa ruler of Austrian Empire

13 VII. Maria Theresa & Joseph II Maria Theresa ( ) – Abolished Austrian & Bohemian Chancelleries – Created centralized departments Foreign Affairs, Justice, War, Commerce, Internal Affairs – Reduced role of local diets Clergy & nobles pay taxes to royal officials instead of local diets Territories divided into 10 provinces administered by royal agents rather than local diets – Staunch Catholic not open to philosophes – Mercantilist Policies

14 Maria Theresa began administrative and economic reforms in 1749, drawing on mercantilist theory and examples provided by Prussian and French reforms. In addition, she undertook reforms in the social, legal, and religious spheres. During the co-regency and after Maria Theresa's death, Joseph continued the reforms along the lines pursued by his mother. But mother and son had sharply different motivations. Maria Theresa was a pious Catholic empress working within the structure of a paternalistic, baroque absolutism and was unsympathetic to the Enlightenment. Joseph, in contrast, gave the reforms an ideological edge reflecting the utilitarian theories of the Enlightenment. Because his reforms were more ideologically driven and thus less flexible and pragmatic, they frequently were also less successful and disrupted the stability of the Habsburg Empire.

15 Joseph II ( co-rule: ) – Enlightened Despot Idealistic… many reforms were not practical Abolished Serfdom Eliminated Trade barriers, monopolies, guild restrictions (Physiocratic ideology) New penal code – equality before the law Complete religious toleration Adopt German as national language – Many policies failed Alienated Catholic Church Serfs displeased (now free… jobs? Income? Too much change too quickly: Non-German speakers alienate


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