Nouns are described as words that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, idea etc. Classification of nouns: Proper nouns and common nouns Countable and uncountable nouns Concrete, abstract and collective nouns
WORDS WITH INTERESTING ORIGINS Biro ‘ball-point pen’, named after László Bíró, its Hungarian inventor Boycott ‘refuse to deal with’ after a landlord in Ireland who made himself unpopular by his treatment of his tenants and was socially isolated Braille ‘writing system for blind people’ after Louis Braille, its French inventor Mentor ‘loyal and wise adviser’ from Mentor, friend of Odysseus Pamphlet ‘a small leaflet’ from a character Pamphilus, in a 12 th century love poem Tawdry ‘cheap and tasteless’ from St Audrey, at whose annual fair in the town of Ely, near Cambridge, cheap gaudy scarves were sold
containerusually made oftypical contents bagcloth, paper, plasticsweets, shopping, letters barrelwood and metalwine, beer basinpottery, metalingredients for making a cake basketcanes, rushesshopping, clothes, waste paper bottleglass, plasticmilk, lemonade, wine bowlchina, glass, woodfruit, soup, sugar boxcardboard, woodmatches, tools, toys, chocolates bucketmetal, plasticsand, water cantincoca cola, beer cartoncardmilk, yoghurt, 20 packets of cigarettes caseleather, woodjewellery, spectacles cratewood, plasticbottles
containerusually made oftypical contents glass milk, lemonade, wine jarglass, potteryjam, honey, olives, instant coffee jugpotterymilk, cream, water mugpotterytea, coffee, cocoa packcardcards, six cans of coca cola packetcard, papercigarettes, tea, biscuits, juice, cereal panmetalfood that is being cooked potmetal, potteryfood, plant sackcloth, plasticcoal, rubbish tin peas, baked beans, fruit tubwood, zinc, cardflowers, rainwater, icecream tubesoft metal, plastictoothpaste, paint, ointment
WORDS OF LATIN ORIGIN Cent, century, centennial, centigrade, centipede – centum ’hundred’ Pedal, peddler, pedestrian, pedicab, pedicure – pede ’foot’ Manual, manacle, manicure, manipulate, manuscript – manus ’hand’
WORDS OF GREEK ORIGIN Three Greek words often found in English: autos ’self’ bios ’life’ graphein ’write’
ORIGIN OF THE WORD DISASTER In ancient times, people believed that the stars had an effect on their lives. When something like an earthquake or flood occurred, they were sure it happened because someone disobeyed the will of the stars. As a result, such events became known as disasters (dis ’opposite, against’ + aster ’star’)
Inflection Number Singular Plural Gender Masculine Feminine Case Subjective Objective Possessive
1) PLURAL regular -(e)s-ves compound nouns other plurals irregularforeign
SPELLING RULES -s -es Most nouns e.g. book – books, rope – ropes Nouns ending in –s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -z e.g. bus – buses, box – boxes Nouns ending in vowel + y e.g. day – days, guy – guys Consonant + y consonant + ies e.g. baby – babies Nouns ending in –o e.g. photo – photos solo – solos EXEPT cargo – cargoes hero – heroes domino – dominoes potato – potatoes echo – echoes tomato - tomatoes Nouns ending in –f e.g. belief – beliefs cliff – cliffs roof – roofs EXEPT -f -ves (12 nouns) calf – calves loaf – loaves half – halves self – selves leaf – leaves shelf – shelves elf – elves thief – thieves knife – knives wife – wives life – lives wolf – wolves
PLURAL OF COMPOUND NOUNS Most compound nouns form plural by adding –(e)s to the second element Noun + noun – -s to the second (armchairs, bedrooms) BUT men-servants, men’s clubs, debtors’ prison Noun + prepositional phrase (mothers-in-law, editors-in-chief) When only one of the components is a noun, -s is added to it (lookers-on, passers-by) When there is no noun, -s is added to the last word (forget-me-nots, good-for-nothings)
IRREGULAR PLURALS (1) Mutation – change of the stem vowel (7 nouns) man – men foot – feet woman – women tooth – teeth mouse – mice goose – geese louse – lice penny – pence -en plurals (come from OE) ox – oxen, child – children, brother – brethren
IRREGULAR PLURALS (2) Uninflected plurals (one form for both singular and plural) deer, sheep, swine; cod, mackarel, pike, plaice, salmon, trout Words that look singular but are plural cattle, clergy, people, police Mass nouns (mud, music, peace) – have no plural because they name things that can't readily be counted Nouns that look plural, but are singular news, physics, politics, darts Pluralia tantum – nouns that show up only in the plural scissors, jeans, congratulations
DOUBLE PLURALS (SOME DIFFERENCE OF MEANING) brother brothers – sons of one mother brethren – members of one community cloth cloths – kind of cloth clothes – articles of dress die dies – metal stamps for making money dices – cubes used in games penny pennies – number of coins pence – amount of pennies in value
2) GENDER 1. Masculine gender: It refers to a male character or member of a species. Man, lion, hero, boy, king, horse and actor are nouns of masculine gender. Example: A boy is playing in the play-ground. Hero of the movie is not a native of this country. 2. Feminine gender: It refers to a female member of a species. Woman, lioness, heroine, girl, mare, niece, empress, cow and actress are few of the feminine-gender nouns that we use. Example: A girl is playing in the play-ground. Heroine of the movie is not a native of this country.
3. Common gender: If it refers to a member of species which can be a male or a female: child, student, friend, applicant, candidate, servant, member, parliamentarian and leader are few of the common-gender nouns. Example: A child is playing in the play-ground. A Parliamentarian should have command over his language. 4. Neuter gender: It refers to a member of a species which is neither a male nor a female. Normally nouns referring to lifeless objects are in neuter nouns: chair, table, tree, star, mountain, street, book, car, school, paper, pencil and computer Example: Computer has brought about drastic changes in our lives. Tree is cleansing the air. Stars are not visible in the day-time. Books are our best friends.
GENDER Nyelvtanilag hímneműek: az erős érzelmeket, erőszakos cselekedeteket jelölő főnevek anger, fury, terror, love, war stb. természeti tényeket, elemeket, jelenségeket, a természetről szerzett benyomásokat jelölő főnevek storm, ocean, thunder, river, sun, danger, law, mountain stb. Nyelvtanilag nőneműek: azok a főnevek, melyeknek jelentése nőies jelleget sugall (szelíd, kedves, gyengéd stb.) illetve termékenységgel függ össze affection, devotion, pity, hope, faith, humility, charity, virtue negatív jellemvonások, tulajdonságok envy, folly, jealousy, revenge, vanity stb. természeti elemek, jelenségek earth, life, darkness, moon, spring, nature, night, sea stb.
SEX INDICATED BY DISTINCT WORDS masculinefemininecommon fatherparent sonchild nephew brothersibling husbandspose uncle kingsovereign gentleman monk bachelor wizard earl
SEX INDICATED BY DISTINCT WORDS masculinefemininecommon father mother parent son daughter child nephew niece brother sister sibling husband wife spose uncle aunt king queen sovereign gentleman lady monk nun bachelor maid, spinster wizard witch earl countess
SEX INDICATED BY DISTINCT WORDS masculinefemininecommon cowox bitchdog marehorse sowpig, swine henfowl duck bee goose ewesheep doedeer hinddeer fillyfoal ’csikó’ vixenfox
SEX INDICATED BY DISTINCT WORDS masculinefemininecommon bull, ox cowox dog, hound bitchdog stallion marehorse boar, hog sowpig, swine cock henfowl drake duck drone bee gander goose ram ewesheep buck doedeer stag hinddeer colt fillyfoal ’csikó’ fox vixenfox
GENDER SHOWN BY A WORD INDICATING SEX masculinefemininecommon she-assass she-bearbear hen-bird (female-bird)bird cow-calfcalf cow-elephant (female- elephant) elephant bitch-foxfox she-goat (nanny-goat)goat doe-rabbitrabbit hen-sparrowsparrow she-cat (tabby)cat female dog, bitchdog peahenpeafowl
GENDER SHOWN BY A WORD INDICATING SEX masculinefemininecommon he-ass (jack-ass) she-assass he-bear she-bearbear cock-bird (male-bird) hen-bird (female-bird)bird bull-calf cow-calfcalf bull-elephant (male- elephant) cow-elephant (female- elephant) elephant dog-fox bitch-foxfox he-goat (billy-goat) she-goat (nanny-goat)goat buck-rabbit doe-rabbitrabbit cock-sparrow hen-sparrowsparrow tom-cat she-cat (tabby)cat male dog female dog, bitchdog peacock peahenpeafowl
GENDERS DISTINGUISHED BY INFLEXION emperor – empress prince – princess duke – duchess mayor – mayoress actor – actress host – hostess poet – poetess heir – heiress manager – manageress tiger – tigress lion – lioness
3) CASE Inflectional form – indicates grammatical function in a phrase, clause or sentence I kicked the ball. – subject John kicked me. – object That ball is mine. – possessor A language is said to "have cases" only if nouns change their form to reflect their case in this way (declination) Other languages perform the same function in different ways.
THE EIGHT HISTORICAL INDO- EUROPEAN CASES CaseIndicatesExample Nominative subject of a finite verb We went to the store. Accusative the direct object of a verb The clerk remembered us. Dative the indirect object of a verb The clerk gave us a discount. The clerk gave a discount to us. Ablativemovement from something, or cause The victim went from us to see the doctor. He was unhappy because of depression. Genitive the possessor of another noun John's book was on the table. The pages of the book turned yellow. Vocative an addressee John, are you all right? Hello, John! Locativea location We live in China. Instrumentalan object used in performing an action We wiped the floor with a mop. and Written by hand.
„THE ENGLISH CASE SYSTEM IS DEAD” Nouns in Modern English no longer show grammatical case Instead – word order and prepositions to determine grammatical function Exception – personal pronoun system
PERSONAL PRONOUNS Nominative case (subjective pronoun) Oblique case (object pronoun) Genitive case (possessive pronoun) Imemy/mine you your/yours hehimhis/his sheherher/hers it its/its weusour/ours you your/yours theythemtheir/theirs
AZ ESET KIFEJEZÉSE Szórend The boy is writing. – nominativus I gave the boy a pen. – dativus Mary sees a boy in the garden. – accusativus Boy, come here! – vocativus Viszonyszók He is a friend of the boy next door. – genitivus I gave a pen to the boy. – dativus Rag The boy’s pen is in the pencil-box. – Saxon genitive
Stem + affixes (prefixes, suffixes, infixes etc.) Verbal nouns (writing, organization, discovery) Agent nouns (actor, worker) Feminine forms (actress, lioness) Nouns formed from adjectives (happiness) etc.
Affixes (bound morphemes) Prefixes re- re do Suffixes -or edit or Infixes -um- fikas (’strong’) f um ikas (’to be strong’) Circumfixes ge- and -t ge lieb t in German
PREFIXES RootPrefixNew wordNew meaning normalab-abnormalnot normal normalsub-subnormalbelow normal spherehemi-hemispherehalf a sphere circlesemi-semicirclehalf a circle disvoverre-rediscoverdiscover again warpre-prewarbefore the war
THE TWO MOST COMMON PREFIXES un- not kind not happy not expensive not active inexpensive inactive in- unkind unhappy ANTONYMSANTONYMS
SUFFIXES Prefixes change the meaning of the word Suffixes change the word from one part of speech to another. Can we rely on the weather? (verb) His reliance on my help is obvious. (noun) Are those ropes reliable ? (adjective) Sean fed the dog reliably. (adverb)
VERB NOUN -er, -or writ e + er = writer act + or = actor -ment enjoy + ment = enjoyment -ion, -ation donat e + ion = donation admir e + ation = admiration
NOUN ADJECTIVE success + ful = successful child + ish = childish disaster + ous = disastrous hero + ic = heroic care + less = careless dirt + y = dirty person + al = personal profit + able = profitable