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Introduction to the Life of the Bard, William Shakespeare Shakespeare and His Time.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Life of the Bard, William Shakespeare Shakespeare and His Time."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the Life of the Bard, William Shakespeare Shakespeare and His Time

2 Outline The Tudor Monarchy The Tudor Monarchy Shakespeare’s Life and Writing Shakespeare’s Life and Writing Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre

3 The Tudor Monarchy

4 Characteristics of the Tudor Reign Dominated by Religious Turmoil Dominated by Religious Turmoil –Protestant vs. Catholic Many political and sexual scandals Many political and sexual scandals Rise of the Middle Class Rise of the Middle Class Wars with France, Spain, and Scotland Wars with France, Spain, and Scotland Vast growth in the Arts and Sciences Vast growth in the Arts and Sciences

5 A Thing About Royalty… Monarchs believe they are placed on the throne by God (The Divine Right of Kings) Monarchs believe they are placed on the throne by God (The Divine Right of Kings) Throne is passed to the first born male Throne is passed to the first born male England has no written Constitution to this day England has no written Constitution to this day

6 The Elvis of Kings—Henry VIII

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8 King Henry VIII Crowned at age 17 after brother’s death Crowned at age 17 after brother’s death –Marries Katherine of Aragon Given title of “Defender of the Faith” by Pope Given title of “Defender of the Faith” by Pope –Defended Catholicism against Martin Luther Reign is littered with scandal and corruption Reign is littered with scandal and corruption –The Protestant Reformation and…

9 … His Six Wives!

10 1. Catherine of Aragon Spanish Spanish –Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella Very Strong Catholic Very Strong Catholic Bears four children— only one survives Bears four children— only one survives –Mary Tudor –There’s no male heir

11 1. Catherine of Aragon Henry wants to annul marriage when she can no longer bear children Henry wants to annul marriage when she can no longer bear children –Pope says no (divorce is an abomination) Establishes the Church of England, making the monarch is in charge of Religion Establishes the Church of England, making the monarch is in charge of Religion –Catholicism with a different name –Pope charges excommunication Henry grants himself a divorce Henry grants himself a divorce Catherine goes into seclusion for the rest of her life Catherine goes into seclusion for the rest of her life

12 2. Anne Boleyn English and a Protestant English and a Protestant Married and crowned Queen one week after divorce Married and crowned Queen one week after divorce Bears a child (Elizabeth) Bears a child (Elizabeth) Tried for treason, adultery, and incest Tried for treason, adultery, and incest –Beheaded by French Swordsman –Buried at Tower of London at site of execution

13 3. Jane Seymour English and Catholic English and Catholic Married Henry the day after Anne’s execution Married Henry the day after Anne’s execution Bears a child—a male heir is established Bears a child—a male heir is established –Edward Tudor Dies of childbed fever (bacterial infection) Dies of childbed fever (bacterial infection)

14 4. Anne of Cleves German and Protestant German and Protestant Henry agrees to marry her without ever seeing her Henry agrees to marry her without ever seeing her –“Not to my taste…” –Agrees to marry to avoid conflict with Germany Annuls the marriage after 6 months Annuls the marriage after 6 months –Referred to as “The King’s Beloved Sister”

15 5. Catherine Howard English and Catholic English and Catholic Princess Mary hated her Princess Mary hated her –Catherine 5 years younger than Mary Bigamist—married to King Henry and another man at the same time Bigamist—married to King Henry and another man at the same time –Henry didn’t know this Caught cheating with one of the King’s servants Caught cheating with one of the King’s servants –Beheaded for adultery

16 6. Catherine Parr English and Protestant English and Protestant Reconciled Princesses Mary and Elizabeth to the line of heirs Reconciled Princesses Mary and Elizabeth to the line of heirs –Mary disliked her for being Protestant Henry VIII dies during this marriage Henry VIII dies during this marriage –Buried next to Jane Seymour at Windsor Castle

17 King Edward VI Crowned at age 9 Crowned at age 9 –Edward Seymour (uncle) named Regent Makes England Protestant Makes England Protestant Invasion of Scotland Invasion of Scotland –Edward betrothed to Mary, Queen of Scots –Scots recant betrothal (Mary of Guise) –Military victory for England Edward VI dies at age 15 Edward VI dies at age 15 –Dies of Tuberculosis

18 Queen Mary I First female Monarch in England First female Monarch in England Restores Catholicism to England Restores Catholicism to England 300 Protestants burnt at the stake in three years 300 Protestants burnt at the stake in three years –Earns her the nickname “Bloody Mary” Marries the King Phillip of Spain Marries the King Phillip of Spain –Needs to establish a Catholic heir –Mistakes uterine cancer for a pregnancy –Dies without an heir

19 Queen Elizabeth I Extremely intelligent Extremely intelligent –Spoke 6 languages fluently –Poet and artist Known as The Virgin Queen Known as The Virgin Queen –Pressured by council to marry; refuses  Marrying foreigner forces other nation’s politics on England  Marrying Englishman—what religion?  Married to England

20 Queen Elizabeth I Instability at times Instability at times –Severe Economic Depression left by Mary I –Papal order releasing English people from Elizabeth’s rule –Assassination attempts (Babington Plot) –Threats of invasion/claims to throne (Mary, Queen of Scots and Spanish Armada)

21 Queen Elizabeth I Reign was known as “The Golden Age” for advancement in the Arts and Sciences Reign was known as “The Golden Age” for advancement in the Arts and Sciences –Voyages of Discovery (the first American colony) –Sculpture and Painting –Architecture –Music –Writers, Poets, and Playwrights  William Shakespeare  Christopher Marlow Dies in 1603 after a 45-year reign; last Tudor Monarch Dies in 1603 after a 45-year reign; last Tudor Monarch

22 The Life and Writings of William Shakespeare

23 Early Life Born April 23, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon Born April 23, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon Married Anne Hathaway Married Anne Hathaway –3 months pregnant at time –Three children  Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith Moves to London to begin his acting/writing career Moves to London to begin his acting/writing career

24 London 1592—The plague runs ramped in London; theatres are ordered closed 1592—The plague runs ramped in London; theatres are ordered closed 1593—Christopher Marlow found dead 1593—Christopher Marlow found dead 1594—First play, The Comedy of Errors, published and performed at Gray’s Inn 1594—First play, The Comedy of Errors, published and performed at Gray’s Inn 1597—Shakespeare’s son, Hamnet, dies; writes the play Hamlet 1597—Shakespeare’s son, Hamnet, dies; writes the play Hamlet 1603—Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I inherits the throne; James I names Shakespeare’s theatre company “The King’s Men” 1603—Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I inherits the throne; James I names Shakespeare’s theatre company “The King’s Men”

25 London 1610—Shakespeare retires to Stratford-upon-Avon 1610—Shakespeare retires to Stratford-upon-Avon 1613—The Globe Theatre burns to the ground during a performance of Henry VIII when a prop cannon misfires and ignites the thatched roof 1613—The Globe Theatre burns to the ground during a performance of Henry VIII when a prop cannon misfires and ignites the thatched roof Shakespeare dies April 23, 1616 at age 52 Shakespeare dies April 23, 1616 at age 52

26 Epitaph Good friend for Jesus sake forbear To dig the dust encloséd here! Blest be the man that spares these stones, And curst be he that moves my bones.

27 Writing Topics Wrote about what he knew, experienced, or felt Wrote about what he knew, experienced, or felt –Politics –Social Problems –Personal Struggle 3 types of plays: 3 types of plays: –Comedies –Histories –Tragedies

28 Iambic Pentameter Majority of works written in Iambic Pentameter Majority of works written in Iambic Pentameter –Iambic Pentameter—a 10 syllable line consisting of 5 sets of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable  Unstressed syllables denoted ( ں )  Stressed syllables denoted ( / ) –Lines vary occasionally

29 Language Emphasis on choosing his words carefully Emphasis on choosing his words carefully –Affected tone and audience interpretation  You’re stupid.  You’re silly.  You’re wrong.  You’re mistaken. Employed symbolism, imagery, and metaphor Employed symbolism, imagery, and metaphor –Pun—play on words –Sexual Innuendo—the suggestion of something sexual in nature

30 Affects on Modern Language Changed nouns to verbs Changed nouns to verbs –Hint eyeball Changed verbs to adjectives Changed verbs to adjectives –Accuse = accused Combined two words into one Combined two words into one –Courtship, birthplace, outbreak, worthless Added prefixes and suffixes Added prefixes and suffixes –Impartialfashionable Developed his own words and phrases Developed his own words and phrases –Assassination –Method in the madness –One fell swoop

31 Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre

32 Theater’s Beginnings No theatres—traveling companies No theatres—traveling companies –5—8 actors per troupe –Prepubescent boys played female roles Performed in taverns, town squares, halls, farms, etc. Performed in taverns, town squares, halls, farms, etc.

33 Theatre is Immoral Laws passed to control vagrancy Laws passed to control vagrancy –Actors became criminals –Creation of Theatres Once theatres open, Puritans want to close them down Once theatres open, Puritans want to close them down –Prostitution –Pit-pocketing –Promote Homosexuality

34 Theatre is Immoral Close for a brief time because of the plague Close for a brief time because of the plague Elizabeth loved theatre, and opens them back open Elizabeth loved theatre, and opens them back open Average Londoner saw 2-3 plays/week; theatre open 6 days/week Average Londoner saw 2-3 plays/week; theatre open 6 days/week

35 Theatre Design Based on bear baiting yards Based on bear baiting yards Physical Makeup Physical Makeup –Entirely wood –Polygonal in shape –3 levels of seating  rich to get a seat –Pit  standing room only for 1 penny  Open skies above—rained on a lot

36 Theatre Design Performance Space Performance Space –Thrust stage –Trap door on stage—used for ascension/dissention to hell –Columns on both sides of stage –Ceiling under roof—the heavens –Balcony—for musicians and acting –Tiring House—back stage area

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