Presentation on theme: "Tudor England. War and peace Henry V – huge success in the Hundred Years War, much of France controlled. Agincourt 1415 – most famous victory 1422."— Presentation transcript:
War and peace Henry V – huge success in the Hundred Years War, much of France controlled. Agincourt 1415 – most famous victory 1422 Henry VI – baby 1431 – Joan of Arc captured and burned Henry VI – Man of learning but mentally ill, founder of Eaton and Cambridge
War of the Roses 1453—Henry VI fell ill and Parliament appointed Richard of York as temporary head Richard was forced out when Henry was better—Richard didn’t like this Richard wanted a fight The Civil war became called the War of Roses
The Roses York = white rose; Lancaster = red rose 1461 York won—Richard’s son Edward IV took throne until he died in 1483; then, his young son, Edward V and his brother “mysteriously” died in the Tower of London under the watch of their uncle, Richard Richard proclaimed himself as Richard III
Tudor dynasty Richard III in power but many people did not like him Henry Tudor—distant cousin of the Lancasters rebelled against the unpopular king and killed him Tudor was crowned King Henry VII and married Richard’s niece; thus, joining Lancasters and Yorks together and ending the War of Roses
Henry VII Prestige of the monarchy Investment in the navy Avoided conflicts and quarrels (with Scotland, France and the nobles at home). Better conditions for trade and business Alliance with the Netherlands
Henry VII Strengthening of the justice system – powerful nobles under control, restoration of the law and order. Frugal with money. Unpopularity of the Church (rich and demoralized) Influences of France and Spain on the pope.
The New King (1509-1547) 1509 – Death of Henry VII Henry VIII In many respects opposite of his father
The Divorce Married: Catherine of Aragon (Spanish) – daughter Mary. Henry asks the Pope to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn. Divorce refused. Henry VIII (1509-1547) makes himself the Head of the Church of England (1533) – The Act of Supremacy.
Brutal end Anne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth but was never able to produce any sons who survived. Eventually Henry grew tired of her. She was beheaded on charges of adultery.
The other wives 3rd Wife Jane Seymour – died in childbirth, gave him his heir Edward VI. 4th Wife Anne of Cleves – political marriage, very homely woman. No children. 5th Wife Catherine Howard – accused of being unfaithful, beheaded 6th Wife Catherine Parr – not beheaded, companion to aging King. She supposedly would sit and talk with him about times past while rubbing his feet which were stricken with gout.
Edward VI 1547 – Henry VIII died and nine year old Edward VI became king. Dies soon.
Elizabeth 1558 - accession of Elizabeth I (†1603). Beginning of political and colonial expansion. Her reign is often called the Golden Age of England
Beginning Elizabeth I was born on September 7, 1533 at Greenwich Palace, London, England. Father: King Henry VIII. Elizabeth's mother: Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. Queen of England 1558 - 1603.
Elizabeth’s policy Similarly to her father - following Catholic doctrine but rejecting the supremacy of the Pope. Never married. She used her single status as a policy tool. By entertaining Catholic suitors she kept Catholic monarchs at bay, and English Catholics loyal to her government. Developed a compromise to please the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches Probably she saved England from religious wars
Legacy The English court a centre for writers, musicians, and scholars. Francis Bacon and William Shakespeare. On March 23, 1603, Elizabeth died. She was succeeded by James I, son of Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Elizabeth's cousin Lord Darnley.
The Stuart Dynasty Elizabeth I dies without an heir in 1603. Advent of the Stuart Dynasty: James I: 1603-1625. James I ‘wisest fool in Christendom?’ Developed a belief in the divine right of king: wanted to limit the power of the Parliament.
Religion Puritans wanted to make England even more Protestant; some Puritans left England – Pilgrim Fathers (1620) Feared Catholic plots against him – The Gunpowder Plot (1605) – 4 th November. Guy Fawkes Day The Gunpowder plotters
Charles I: 1625-1649 Power of the British Parliament Powerful minority of Puritans in Parliament
English Civil War: 1642-1649 Since Charles I ruled over Scotland AND England, there were several religions Charles I wanted ONE religion – ended up in Civil War when the Scots rebelled War was costly and Charles needed Parliament. Parliament hated him and wanted to limit his power Supporters of Charles I = Royalists The opposition supports Parliament = Roundheads
More Civil War Under leadership of Oliver Cromwell, the puritan roundheads finally won (1646) Took Charles I hostage, tried him in front of the public and executed him The decapitation - Execution of Charles I in 1649
Oliver Cromwell 1649 he got rid of the monarchy and established a republican form of government Ireland revolted against Cromwell and failed – 616,000 Irish were killed by war, plague and famine
Puritan Morality Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to improve England’s morality Abolished all “sinful” things – like theater Cromwell was tolerant of other religions despite his deep Puritan beliefs (EXCEPT CATHOLICS)
Restoration and Revolution English get sick of military rule and after Cromwell dies, they ask the older son of Charles I (Charles II) to rule England Restoration of the monarchy 1660. Allowed the return of theater and sports Passed important guarantee of freedom: Habeas Corpus “to have the body” People need to know why they’re arrested Could not be held indefinitely without trial
James II and the Glorious Revolution James II got the throne after Charles II died: Reign of James II (1685-1688) Everyone hated James because he was flamboyantly Catholic, his son was raised as a Catholic. James was eventually peacefully overthrown by his own daughter and her husband (protestants)in 1688 – The Glorious Revolution. William and Mary ruled England
Political Changes First Constitutional Monarchy where laws limited the ruler’s power Bill of Rights: No suspension of Parliament’s laws No taxes w/o Parliament’s consent Freedom of speech in Parliament No penalty for complaining about the King
Political Changes Established a Cabinet Cabinet was a link between the majority party in Parliament and the King Became center of power and policymaking Still exists today Leader of Cabinet = Prime Minister