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Tudor England. War and peace  Henry V – huge success in the Hundred Years War, much of France controlled.  Agincourt 1415 – most famous victory  1422.

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Presentation on theme: "Tudor England. War and peace  Henry V – huge success in the Hundred Years War, much of France controlled.  Agincourt 1415 – most famous victory  1422."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tudor England

2 War and peace  Henry V – huge success in the Hundred Years War, much of France controlled.  Agincourt 1415 – most famous victory  1422 Henry VI – baby  1431 – Joan of Arc captured and burned  Henry VI – Man of learning but mentally ill, founder of Eaton and Cambridge

3 War of the Roses  1453—Henry VI fell ill and Parliament appointed Richard of York as temporary head  Richard was forced out when Henry was better—Richard didn’t like this  Richard wanted a fight  The Civil war became called the War of Roses

4 The Roses  York = white rose;  Lancaster = red rose  1461 York won—Richard’s son Edward IV took throne until he died in 1483; then,  his young son, Edward V and his brother “mysteriously” died in the Tower of London under the watch of their uncle, Richard  Richard proclaimed himself as Richard III

5 Princes in the Tower

6 Tudor dynasty  Richard III in power but many people did not like him  Henry Tudor—distant cousin of the Lancasters rebelled against the unpopular king and killed him  Tudor was crowned King Henry VII and married Richard’s niece; thus, joining Lancasters and Yorks together and ending the War of Roses

7 Henry VII  Prestige of the monarchy  Investment in the navy  Avoided conflicts and quarrels (with Scotland, France and the nobles at home).  Better conditions for trade and business  Alliance with the Netherlands

8 Henry VII  Strengthening of the justice system – powerful nobles under control, restoration of the law and order.  Frugal with money.  Unpopularity of the Church (rich and demoralized)  Influences of France and Spain on the pope.

9 The New King (1509-1547)  1509 – Death of Henry VII  Henry VIII  In many respects opposite of his father

10 The Divorce  Married: Catherine of Aragon (Spanish) – daughter Mary.  Henry asks the Pope to divorce Catherine and marry Anne Boleyn.  Divorce refused.  Henry VIII (1509-1547) makes himself the Head of the Church of England (1533) – The Act of Supremacy.

11 Brutal end  Anne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth but was never able to produce any sons who survived.  Eventually Henry grew tired of her. She was beheaded on charges of adultery.

12 The other wives  3rd Wife Jane Seymour – died in childbirth, gave him his heir Edward VI.  4th Wife Anne of Cleves – political marriage, very homely woman. No children.  5th Wife Catherine Howard – accused of being unfaithful, beheaded  6th Wife Catherine Parr – not beheaded, companion to aging King. She supposedly would sit and talk with him about times past while rubbing his feet which were stricken with gout.

13 Edward VI  1547 – Henry VIII died and nine year old Edward VI became king.  Dies soon.

14 Elizabeth  1558 - accession of Elizabeth I (†1603). Beginning of political and colonial expansion.  Her reign is often called the Golden Age of England

15 Beginning  Elizabeth I was born on September 7, 1533 at Greenwich Palace, London, England.  Father: King Henry VIII.  Elizabeth's mother: Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn.  Queen of England 1558 - 1603. 

16 Elizabeth’s policy  Similarly to her father - following Catholic doctrine but rejecting the supremacy of the Pope.  Never married. She used her single status as a policy tool.  By entertaining Catholic suitors she kept Catholic monarchs at bay, and English Catholics loyal to her government.  Developed a compromise to please the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches  Probably she saved England from religious wars

17 Building an Empire

18 Legacy  The English court a centre for writers, musicians, and scholars.  Francis Bacon and William Shakespeare.  On March 23, 1603, Elizabeth died.  She was succeeded by James I, son of Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Elizabeth's cousin Lord Darnley.

19 The Stuart Dynasty And Oliver Cromwell

20 The Stuart Dynasty  Elizabeth I dies without an heir in 1603.  Advent of the Stuart Dynasty: James I: 1603-1625.  James I ‘wisest fool in Christendom?’  Developed a belief in the divine right of king: wanted to limit the power of the Parliament.

21 Religion  Puritans wanted to make England even more Protestant; some Puritans left England – Pilgrim Fathers (1620)  Feared Catholic plots against him – The Gunpowder Plot (1605) – 4 th November. Guy Fawkes Day The Gunpowder plotters

22 Charles I: 1625-1649  Power of the British Parliament  Powerful minority of Puritans in Parliament

23 English Civil War: 1642-1649  Since Charles I ruled over Scotland AND England, there were several religions  Charles I wanted ONE religion – ended up in Civil War when the Scots rebelled  War was costly and Charles needed Parliament. Parliament hated him and wanted to limit his power  Supporters of Charles I = Royalists  The opposition supports Parliament = Roundheads

24 More Civil War  Under leadership of Oliver Cromwell, the puritan roundheads finally won (1646)  Took Charles I hostage, tried him in front of the public and executed him  The decapitation - Execution of Charles I in 1649

25 Oliver Cromwell  1649 he got rid of the monarchy and established a republican form of government  Ireland revolted against Cromwell and failed – 616,000 Irish were killed by war, plague and famine

26 Puritan Morality  Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to improve England’s morality  Abolished all “sinful” things – like theater  Cromwell was tolerant of other religions despite his deep Puritan beliefs (EXCEPT CATHOLICS)

27 Restoration and Revolution  English get sick of military rule and after Cromwell dies, they ask the older son of Charles I (Charles II) to rule England  Restoration of the monarchy 1660.  Allowed the return of theater and sports  Passed important guarantee of freedom: Habeas Corpus  “to have the body”  People need to know why they’re arrested  Could not be held indefinitely without trial

28 Restoration

29 James II and the Glorious Revolution  James II got the throne after Charles II died:  Reign of James II (1685-1688)  Everyone hated James because he was flamboyantly Catholic, his son was raised as a Catholic.  James was eventually peacefully overthrown by his own daughter and her husband (protestants)in 1688 – The Glorious Revolution.  William and Mary ruled England

30 Political Changes  First Constitutional Monarchy where laws limited the ruler’s power  Bill of Rights:  No suspension of Parliament’s laws  No taxes w/o Parliament’s consent  Freedom of speech in Parliament  No penalty for complaining about the King

31 Political Changes  Established a Cabinet  Cabinet was a link between the majority party in Parliament and the King  Became center of power and policymaking  Still exists today  Leader of Cabinet = Prime Minister

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