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Chapter 11, Section 1 – World War I Begins

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1 Chapter 11, Section 1 – World War I Begins
Objectives: 1. Identify the long-term causes and the immediate circumstances that led to WWI. 2. Describe the first two years of the war. 3. Summarize U.S. public opinion about the war. 4. Explain why the U.S. entered the war.

2 Bellringer What do you do when someone insults a friend? Do you defend them? How?

3 What were the causes of World War I?
Militarism…Weapons Alliances…Secret Imperialism…Economic Nationalism…Pride

4 Europe was a “powder keg” waiting for a spark to ignite
Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand - heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne - and his wife A chain of events follows leading Europe to war




8 The assassin… Gavrilo Princip
A Serbian nationalist trained in Serbia The “Black Hand”…

9 The assassination



12 The chain of events… AFF assassinated in Bosnia AH blames Serbia
AH makes harsh demands of Serbia AH asks Germany for support continued >>>

13 The chain of events... Germany responds with the “blank check” …
Russia is allied with Serbia and mobilizes Fearing a two front war Germany launches a plan

14 The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s plan to win the war early
Germany needed a quick strike against France and then a quick strike against Russia Needed to go through Belgium first to do this Belgian army resisted and slowed the German advance


16 First Battle of the Marne
French and British armies moved into northern France and stopped the German advance near the Marne River Germany lost its opportunity for a quick victory The western front led to a stalemate miles of trenches Costly - in one battle British suffered 60,000 casualties in a single day of combat

17 Fragile Alliances 1871 last great European conflict
1907 two camps evolve: Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Germany, A-H, Italy Triple Entente (Allies) GB, France, Russia

18 New Alliances Allies Central Powers Great Britain Germany
France Austria – Hungary Italy Ottoman Empire Serbia Bulgaria Russia Japan Belgium

19 European Imperialism broadly : the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence Africa Asia Middle East


21 How did the standards of warfare change?
Distinction between soldier and civilian erased Fields were burned and wells poisoned British naval blockade starved the German people Germany submarines struck at any ship believed to carry armaments

22 Stalemate Earlier wars were fought with a cavalry
Modern weapons made the cavalry useless New weapons - guns, grenades, artillery shells, poison gas, mustard gas led to trench warfare No Man’s Land




26 Modern weapons made the trenches a grim reality



29 British prepare to go “over the top” at the Battle of the Somme

30 Australians resting in dug-out during the Battle of the Somme

31 Diagram of an Australian dug-out


33 German Trench near the Hindenburg Line

34 Captured German Trench at the Battle of the Somme



37 What was the American response?
War would threaten U.S. business interests Many saw no reason to become involved Wilson: America should remain above the conflict and he would serve as peacemaker Neutrality Proclamation: U.S. was not committed to either side and should remain neutral

38 America should be “neutral in fact as well as in name-impartial in thought as well as in action.” – Woodrow Wilson

39 What does neutrality mean?
To be as neutral as possible in a neutral sense – not care about the outcome of the war Be as fair as possible to both sides without influencing either side to win During war belligerents and neutrals can trade – but everything a neutral does affects the outcome of the war.

40 How did Americans feel about the war?
President Wilson’s message “impartial in thought and action” Economic, cultural, and political factors make impossible. 1914 1/3 of all Americans are “hyphenated” Americans 8 million German-Americans and 4 million Irish-Americans Culture and language bonds along with Franco-American friendship

41 What was the tone of American neutrality?
Propaganda…. Violation of neutral rights… Financial and Economic…

42 British propaganda Emphasized common ties: heritage, language, literature, legal systems, democratic institutions Cut communications with the continent Exaggerated stories of German atrocities in Belgium





47 What were America’s economic ties with the Allies?
As a neutral power we could trade with belligerents Trade with Germany ended because of British blockade practices and Pres. Wilson denounced German war atrocities and the threat of Germany to democracy.

48 American Neutrality USA economically tied to GB
Trade with Germany ends Trade with Allies shoots up 1914 = $824 million 1916 = $3.2 billion 1917 loans = 2.5 billion Great economic boom for USA Neutral in name only

49 How did Germany violate American neutrality rights?
February, 1915 – Germany announced waters around Great Britain as a war zone Warned neutral powers identification at sea a problem Wilson informed Germany that will be held in strict accountability American response: “an indefensible violation of neutral rights”

50 Lusitania British liner – departed from New York
Sunk off the coast of Ireland 128 Americans died Wilson condemned the act as barbaric and insisted on sending a warning to Germany Lusitania Notes Wm. Jennings Bryan resigned as Sec. of State



53 Burying the dead from the Lusitania

54 The Sussex Unarmed French ship Sunk by Germany – March, 1916
4 Americans injured Wilson protested Sussex pledge: Germany agreed to warn all ships before sinking puts the decision of when the U.S. goes to war in Gemany’s hands

55 What was Germany’s defense for submarine warfare?
England had taken liberties with international law England was attempting the starvation of Germany England proclaimed the North Sea a military zone Germany must stop the flow of munitions from the U.S.

56 “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare”
Lusitania and Sussex sunk Barbaric U-boats killing innocent civilians Lusitania secretly carrying war materials to the Allies Wilson’s diplomatic response…harsh words Germany promises to board ships prior to attack

57 Who opposed the war? Jane Addams, Lillian Wald – progressive reformers
Suffrage movement: “I didn’t raise my boy to be a soldier.” Socialists – opposed capitalist interests Wm. Jennings Bryant - Pacifists Wilson’s campaign slogan in 1916 – “He Kept Us Out of War”

58 Fading opposition to the War
War becomes viewed as a positive force for social change War required greater government involvement in American life Women believed they could win the right to vote Middle-class women became community leaders

59 Who advocated U.S. preparedness?
National Security League business leaders urged that the United States be more prepared - many had ties to Great Britain and would have liked the U.S. to aid G.B. if necessary. National Defense Act – 1916 – doubled sized of army to 220,000 Congress increased spending for navy




63 The Russian Revolution and America’s Response

64 How did the Russian Revolution affect the war?
1917 – Lenin took control of the Russian government Promised to make peace with Germany Civil war broke out March 3, 1918 signed treaty with Germany Allowed Germany to concentrate on Western Front June 3, German forces within 56 miles of Paris


66 Why did the U.S. enter the war?
Germany – fearful of loss unless she cut British supply lines – announced resumption of unlimited submarine warfare Wilson broke diplomatic relations – Feb, 3, 1917 Zimmerman note… Russian Revolution… Wilson ordered Am. Merchant ships armed in March Germany sank 7 Am. Merchant ships

67 U.S. Declared War on Germany
April 2, 1917 – Wilson addressed Congress Submarine warfare – “warfare against mankind” “The world must be made safe for democracy” Senate – 82 to 6 House – 373 to 50 Declaration of war – April 6, 1917

68 President Wilson delivers his War Message to Congress April 2, 1917

69 Central Powers v. Allied Powers
Austro-Hungarian Empire Germany Ottoman Empire United States Serbia Belgium France Great Britain Italy Japan

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