Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11, Section 1 – World War I Begins"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11, Section 1 – World War I Begins Objectives:1. Identify the long-term causes and the immediate circumstances that led to WWI.2. Describe the first two years of the war.3. Summarize U.S. public opinion about the war.4. Explain why the U.S. entered the war.
2BellringerWhat do you do when someone insults a friend? Do you defend them? How?
3What were the causes of World War I? Militarism…WeaponsAlliances…SecretImperialism…EconomicNationalism…Pride
4Europe was a “powder keg” waiting for a spark to ignite Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand - heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne - and his wifeA chain of events follows leading Europe to war
12The chain of events… AFF assassinated in Bosnia AH blames Serbia AH makes harsh demands of SerbiaAH asks Germany for supportcontinued >>>
13The chain of events... Germany responds with the “blank check” … Russia is allied with Serbia and mobilizesFearing a two front war Germany launches a plan
14The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s plan to win the war early Germany needed a quick strike against France and then a quick strike against RussiaNeeded to go through Belgium first to do thisBelgian army resisted and slowed the German advance
16First Battle of the Marne French and British armies moved into northern France and stopped the German advance near the Marne RiverGermany lost its opportunity for a quick victoryThe western front led to a stalemate miles of trenchesCostly - in one battle British suffered 60,000 casualties in a single day of combat
17Fragile Alliances 1871 last great European conflict 1907 two camps evolve:Triple Alliance (Central Powers)Germany, A-H, ItalyTriple Entente (Allies)GB, France, Russia
18New Alliances Allies Central Powers Great Britain Germany France Austria – HungaryItaly Ottoman EmpireSerbia BulgariaRussiaJapanBelgium
19European Imperialismbroadly : the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influenceAfricaAsiaMiddle East
21How did the standards of warfare change? Distinction between soldier and civilian erasedFields were burned and wells poisonedBritish naval blockade starved the German peopleGermany submarines struck at any ship believed to carry armaments
22Stalemate Earlier wars were fought with a cavalry Modern weapons made the cavalry uselessNew weapons - guns, grenades, artillery shells, poison gas, mustard gas led to trench warfareNo Man’s Land
37What was the American response? War would threaten U.S. business interestsMany saw no reason to become involvedWilson: America should remain above the conflict and he would serve as peacemakerNeutrality Proclamation: U.S. was not committed to either side and should remain neutral
38America should be “neutral in fact as well as in name-impartial in thought as well as in action.” – Woodrow Wilson
39What does neutrality mean? To be as neutral as possible in a neutral sense – not care about the outcome of the warBe as fair as possible to both sides without influencing either side to winDuring war belligerents and neutrals can trade – but everything a neutral does affects the outcome of the war.
40How did Americans feel about the war? President Wilson’s message “impartial in thought and action”Economic, cultural, and political factors make impossible.1914 1/3 of all Americans are “hyphenated” Americans8 million German-Americans and 4 million Irish-AmericansCulture and language bonds along with Franco-American friendship
41What was the tone of American neutrality? Propaganda….Violation of neutral rights…Financial and Economic…
42British propagandaEmphasized common ties: heritage, language, literature, legal systems, democratic institutionsCut communications with the continentExaggerated stories of German atrocities in Belgium
47What were America’s economic ties with the Allies? As a neutral power we could trade with belligerentsTrade with Germany ended becauseof British blockade practices andPres. Wilson denounced German war atrocities andthe threat of Germany to democracy.
48American Neutrality USA economically tied to GB Trade with Germany endsTrade with Allies shoots up1914 = $824 million1916 = $3.2 billion1917 loans = 2.5 billionGreat economic boom for USANeutral in name only
49How did Germany violate American neutrality rights? February, 1915 – Germany announced waters around Great Britain as a war zoneWarned neutral powers identification at sea a problemWilson informed Germany that will be held in strict accountabilityAmerican response: “an indefensible violation of neutral rights”
50Lusitania British liner – departed from New York Sunk off the coast of Ireland128 Americans diedWilson condemned the act as barbaric and insisted on sending a warning to GermanyLusitania NotesWm. Jennings Bryan resigned as Sec. of State
54The Sussex Unarmed French ship Sunk by Germany – March, 1916 4 Americans injuredWilson protestedSussex pledge: Germany agreed to warn all ships before sinking puts the decision of when the U.S. goes to war in Gemany’s hands
55What was Germany’s defense for submarine warfare? England had taken liberties with international lawEngland was attempting the starvation of GermanyEngland proclaimed the North Sea a military zoneGermany must stop the flow of munitions from the U.S.
56“Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” Lusitania and Sussex sunkBarbaric U-boats killing innocent civiliansLusitania secretly carrying war materials to the AlliesWilson’s diplomatic response…harsh wordsGermany promises to board ships prior to attack
57Who opposed the war? Jane Addams, Lillian Wald – progressive reformers Suffrage movement: “I didn’t raise my boy to be a soldier.”Socialists – opposed capitalist interestsWm. Jennings Bryant - PacifistsWilson’s campaign slogan in 1916 – “He Kept Us Out of War”
58Fading opposition to the War War becomes viewed as a positive force for social changeWar required greater government involvement in American lifeWomen believed they could win the right to voteMiddle-class women became community leaders
59Who advocated U.S. preparedness? National Security Leaguebusiness leaders urged that the United States be more prepared - many had ties to Great Britain and would have liked the U.S. to aid G.B. if necessary.National Defense Act – 1916 – doubled sized of army to 220,000Congress increased spending for navy
64How did the Russian Revolution affect the war? 1917 – Lenin took control of the Russian governmentPromised to make peace with GermanyCivil war broke outMarch 3, 1918 signed treaty with GermanyAllowed Germany to concentrate on Western FrontJune 3, German forces within 56 miles of Paris
66Why did the U.S. enter the war? Germany – fearful of loss unless she cut British supply lines – announced resumption of unlimited submarine warfareWilson broke diplomatic relations – Feb, 3, 1917Zimmerman note…Russian Revolution…Wilson ordered Am. Merchant ships armed in MarchGermany sank 7 Am. Merchant ships
67U.S. Declared War on Germany April 2, 1917 – Wilson addressed CongressSubmarine warfare – “warfare against mankind”“The world must be made safe for democracy”Senate – 82 to 6House – 373 to 50Declaration of war – April 6, 1917
68President Wilson delivers his War Message to Congress April 2, 1917
69Central Powers v. Allied Powers Austro-Hungarian EmpireGermanyOttoman EmpireUnited StatesSerbiaBelgiumFranceGreat BritainItalyJapan