Presentation on theme: "Juan Santana, Group #4: 1987 Exam Thematic Essay: Analyze the ways in which both the theory and practice of monarchy evolved in England from 1603 to 1688-89."— Presentation transcript:
Juan Santana, Group #4: 1987 Exam Thematic Essay: Analyze the ways in which both the theory and practice of monarchy evolved in England from 1603 to 1688-89. Critical Trigger Words: Analyze (show trends),Theory (Ideal Function of Govt.), Practice of monarchy (Putting theory into action), 1603 (Death of Elizabeth I), 1688-89 ( Glorious Rev.) Two Step Direction Phrase: Focus on major events like the English Civil War and reigns of monarchs like James & Charles and Charles & James. Explain the push and pull struggle between the Monarch and Parliament.
Introduction Three Step Arc BP: The theory and concept of a monarchy in how it applies to European state consolidation. NF: The split of political development into constitutionalism and absolutism. Dir: The type of govt. England chose and the conflict between the Stuart Monarchs and the Parliament.
Introduction The idea of a single person holding dominion over all others to form an independent state is the driving force in state consolidation in 17 th century Europe. Political development in this concept led to different methods of operating a government two prominent models being absolutism and constitutionalism. The first one centers on strong centralized monarchs and the dominating royal power and the latter is based on a limited monarchy where the ruler is confined to the law and parliament. Theoretically, England planned to follow the constitutional model but the Stuart monarchs thought otherwise of this and conflicted with the Parliament throughout the century. This conflict centers on the evolution of England to becoming a world power.
Body Paragraph One Focus: The Stuart Family Dynasty in England - James I ascension to the throne and his policy of impositions. James’s council= scandal & corruption; Believed in divine right, “No bishop, no king”, Pro-Catholic - Charles I succeeded James I and funded a war against Spain with levies, tariffs, duties, taxes, and forced loans without the help of Parliament. - Parliament would give funds if Charles agreed to the Petition of Right of 1628. Charles however dissolves the Parliament from 1628 to 1640. (Years of Personal Rule)
Body Paragraph One Ending the Elizabethan era of England, James I, the first Stuart monarch, ascended to the throne but didn’t plan on using the theoretical model England sought. Believing in divine right, he ruled with little discussion with his court, which was full of scandal and control, and developed new levies called impositions to gain in come. He brought the Anglican episcopacy under his control, hence his saying “No bishop, no king”, while antagonizing Puritans and having Pro- Catholic sentiments. His son Charles I followed his father’s footsteps in how he enforced levies, duties, taxes, and loans in the war against Spain without the consent of Parliament. The legislative body proposed that if Charles agrees to the Petition of Right of 1628, which would force him to consult with them in passing taxes, they would fund Charles but he dissolves the Short Parliament from 1628 to 1640. Charles I in that period had ruled England as an absolutist monarch.
Body Paragraph Two Focus: The English Civil War & The Puritan Republic - Scottish rebellions in 1640 forced Charles to reinstall the Long Parliament. - Regilious differences and tensions caused Charles to invade Parliament and try to arrest his opponents. - Civil War (1642- 1646): Cavaliers (king supporters) Vs. Roundheads ( parliament supporters) - Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army def. Charles I’s army. - Charles I is executed on Jan. 30, 1649; England (1649- 1660)=Puritan Republic - Lord Protector Cromwell had a military dictatorship w/o Parliament.
Body Paragraph Two Relying only on his oppressive polices, Charles I could only last for so long until the Scottish rebellion in 1640 forced his hand into reinstalling the Long Parliament. However due to religious differences, tensions, and distrust, Charles I invaded Parliament to try to arrest his opponents but failed and sparked the English Civil War lasting from 1642 to 1648. The struggle for power take form in groups known as the Cavaliers, Charles’s supporters, and the Roundheads the parliamentary opposition who eventually won with the aid of Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army. Meeting his fate, Charles I was executed on January 30, 1649 leaving England in the hands of Cromwell as Lord Protector of the Puritan Republic until 1660. This new change was no better than Charles’s reign due to Oliver’s military dictatorship which made the English want to restore the status quo. From a monarchy to now a republic, England has still not accomplished in putting its ideal monarchy into practice.
Body Paragraph Three Focus: The Stuart Restoration & the Glorious Revolution - In 1660, the English want to restore the status quo before Cromwell so Charles II was named monarch. - Charles II was Pro- Catholic and wanted religious toleration. - Charles II issued the Declaration of Indulgences in 1672 to suspend laws against Catholics and non-Anglicans. - He was later forced to pass the Test Act to swear a oath. - James II came into the throne in 1885 and repealed the Test Act. - In fear of a Catholic heir, parliament invited William of Orange to invade. James fled to France and William & Mary take over.
Body Paragraph Three Restoring the status quo before the civil war, Charles II was named monarch and was Pro-Catholic and advocated for religious toleration. He thus issued the Declarations of Indulgences which suspend laws against Catholics and non- Anglicans. However the Parliament counteracted this with the Test Act enforcing that all civil and military officers must sear an oath against transubstantiation. Soon enough in 1885, James II came into power and repealed the Test Act since he was also Pro-Catholic. In fear of an Catholic heir to the throne, Parliament invited William of Orange, husband of James’s Protestant sister Mary, to invited and he was going to which cause James to flee to France. William and Mary took the throne which completed this so-called Glorious Revolution and finally giving the Parliament a chance to apply their theory of a constitutional monarchy into practice in England.
Conclusion Looking ahead... - Recap on the conflict between the monarchs and the Parliament. Also on the difference between the English theoretical monarchy model and the practice done by the Stuart family. - The results and aftermath of the conflict. The advantage that the Parliament had now. - The establishment/rise of a constitutional monarchy through the British Bill of Rights of 1689
Conclusion With all things considered, we can see why England had struggled so much to finally establish a constitutional monarchy due to the way the Stuart dynasty operated in the government. The clash between the two political models of absolutism and constitutionalism is the catalyst for the progression in English politics. With William and Mary as their rulers, the Parliament didn’t need to worry about a Catholic ruler and even better they were able to get their rulers to recognize the Bill of Rights of 1689. Finally able to limit the power of the monarch, making the ruler subject to the law and the consent of Parliament, the theory of a constitutional monarchy was put into action through this bill. This is the beginning of England’s, later Great Britain, rise to being a world power and setting an example that others will soon follow.
Miscellaneous: All essays can be divided into threes: The “Big Three” for this thematic are… The conflict of Monarch vs. Parliament= Catalyst for evolution in English monarchy/politics. The transitions from Stuart England to Puritan Republic to Constitutional Monarchy England. The difference between the English theoretical monarchy model and the practice done by the Stuart family.