Presentation on theme: "Inquiries into a Multitude of Books 群書考索, by Zhang Ruyu 章如愚 Ernest Brewster Yuxin Helen Gao Mingyuan Song Sep 29, 2014 CH Hist 225."— Presentation transcript:
Inquiries into a Multitude of Books 群書考索, by Zhang Ruyu 章如愚 Ernest Brewster Yuxin Helen Gao Mingyuan Song Sep 29, 2014 CH Hist 225
Who was Zhang Ruyu? Overview of Biographical Sources Wu Shidao’s 吳師道 (ca. 14th century) Jingxiang lu 《敬鄉錄》 contains the earliest biographical information on Zhang. Wu went back and checked the examination rolls and determined that Zhang Ruyu was a presented scholar 進士 of 1198. The 1480 Gazetteer of Jinhua County 《金華府志》 contains very brief account which mentions that Zhang attained the office of Gentleman for Court Service 朝奉郎 and Erudite in National Academy and compiled a book. 1508 edition of Qunshu kaosuo contains an apocryphal account of Zhang which was later incorporated into the local gazetteer 70 years later. Nandongshu ( 南宋书 ) recorded Zhang as a 史官编校, compiler at the Bureau of Historiography.
Composition of Qunshu Kaosuo Wu Shidao notes in Record of Honoring Our Locale that the Kaosuo in 100 juan and adds that he chose the best parts in 20 fascicles to prepare examination candidates, known as Excellent Summary 桌約. Wu saw the earlier edition, the Yuan edition was a text which had been expanded from 100 juan by Wan into four collections – 66, 65, 56, and 25 fascicles – total of 212 fascicles. The 1248 edition was compiled by. In the preface of the second edition by Wang Youkai 汪有開 it was completed but very few of his students had seen the entirety of it – only Mr. Cao had seen it. – second edition printed in very small type on a tiny paper as a pocket book. Wu Shidao in his biography of Fu Yin says that Zhang Ruyu’s Qunshu kaosuo was largely adapted from Fu’s Baikao 百考, but the former eclipsed the latter in terms of popularity and circulation
Surmised Contents of the Original Qunshu KaosuoTopics Location in the Yuan-Ming Edition 1 table of contents 目錄 extant ClassicsPart 1, fascicles 1-8 2History and Literature1, fasc. 12-17, 9-22 3Ritual1, fasc. 23-53 4 text extantRitual1, fasc. 35-37; 40-46 5 text extant Administrative geography, land tenure, tax system 1, fasc. 59-66; II, fasc. 53-5 6 Music, Musical Mathematics, calendar, astronomy 1, fasc. 47-58 7Government Offices1,. Fasc. 1-12 8Government Offices1, fasc. 13-35 9Schools and the Selection of Literature1, fasc. 26-37 10Military1, fasc. 38-50 Table of Surmised Contents of the Original Qunshu Kaosuo from Bol, “Zhang Ruyu, the Qunshu kaosuo, and Diversity in Intellectual Culture -- Evidence from Dongyang County in Wuzhou,” p. 660.
How was 群书考索 used? As reference book for exam takers: -Written in Southern Song dynasty, when the number of test takers for the imperial exam soared. -evidence of Zhang Ruyu having taught at Dong Yang academies as an examination teacher. - 吳師道 in ：卓約便於舉子業者。 -Printed on small handbooks so easy to be carried around (though if you try to read it...) -Cheng Duanli (1271-1345) recommended that students follow the classification and organizational model of privately compiled encyclopedic works like Inquiries into a Multitude of Books
How was 群书考索 used? As a tool to promulgate author’s political views: -The table of content (classification) shows the book focuses overwhelmingly on office holding and government -Zhang took the jinshi himself and held the office of 国子博士东宫直讲 (Erudite of the National University and Instructor in the Palace of the Heir Apparent) -The book includes not only survey of classics but also Zhang’s commentaries on them -Example: Zhang’s account of the land tenure system, supporting the well-field ( 井田 ) system documented in the Zhou Li, believing it to be widely instituted and promoted equal distribution of the land)
Views Activist statecraft -Equitable distribution of land by an activist state, advocate of the Zhou well-field system -Apologetic of Wang Anshi’s New Policies, dynastic equalizing tradition - 封建乃天道之公郡县乃一人之私，封建与天下共其利，郡县之制以天下奉一人 之私欲 Policy towards 夷狄 reflecting political view - 封建则无夷狄乱华之患，万国亲附所以保卫中国禁卫四夷也 Philosophy of history unlike Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucianism -“Using the past to correct the present” (Bol 1997) -The rise of local literati not necessary or inevitable