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Chapter 3.  During the Restoration serious colonization resumed: CT—incorporated 2 other colonies 1662 Carolinas—north separated 1691; south attracted.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3.  During the Restoration serious colonization resumed: CT—incorporated 2 other colonies 1662 Carolinas—north separated 1691; south attracted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3


3  During the Restoration serious colonization resumed: CT—incorporated 2 other colonies 1662 Carolinas—north separated 1691; south attracted slaves to drain swamps and work rice NY—transferred to royal status 1685 NJ—united under royal control 1702 (Delaware still attached) GA—carved from SC as buffer and utopian penal colony 1732 ME—attached to Mass Bay

4  1700-1750 population rose to a million  Travel still cost about a year’s wages  Most people lived in countryside but cities were growing quickly, yet paled to London (700,000)  Stratification increased with ½ the wealth of some cities controlled by 5%  Growing poor became more evident


6  Revenue Act 1673 placed duties on exports from colonies after Navigation Acts Colonists scuttled these restrictions  1679 MA was denied access to NH land  1684 MA charter annulled  1686 CT and RI charters revoked  Mass. Bay and Plymouth become Dominion of New England

7  James II admired Louis XIV’s authoritarianism NY and NJ added to Dominion  Town meetings banned in Mass  Public Church of England worship encouraged  Previous land titles challenged, new titles granted for a fee


9  James abdicates in bloodless coup  1689 English Bill of Rights established  Constitutional monarchy created based on Locke’s Two Treatises on Gov’t (1691)  Duties and regulations relaxed

10  Jacob Leisler led a Dutch militia to oust an Andros appointed Lt. Gov.  Leisler turned oppressive and was hung and decapitated  Andros deported  Gang of protesters in Maryland removed the Catholic gov’t making Church of England official  Glorious Revolution noticeably anti- Catholic

11  French and British enter a constant state of war in late 17 th to the fall of Napoleon  King William’s War(1689-1697) French attack New England from St. Lawrence  Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) British regain Hudson; gain Newfoundland, Nova Scotia; fighting in Mobile and Carolinas Part of War of Spanish Succession—(1701-1714) Charles II has no heir and a conflict erupts over Hapsburg land between all parties Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Britain gains Gibralter, recognition of Iroquois as British subjects, claim to OH and Miss. Valleys and contract to supply slaves


13  From 1500s onwards scientific and intellectual knowledge spread from Europe  Philosophers and scientists promoted rational, natural, logical order and understanding Distinctly secular Locke, Montesquieu, Franklin

14  Revival of Christianity also swept colonies 1720 - 1770 John Wesley (GA), John Edwards (CT), Frelinghuysen (NJ), Tennant (Mid-Atl)  Large enthusiastic crowds around powerful rhetoric  Split churches into old light and new light  Churches bore educational institutions Princeton (NJ Presby.), Columbia (NY Anglican), Brown (RI Bapt.), Rutgers (NY Dutch Ref.)  Revivals and awakenings devolved power, challenged status and encouraged inclusion

15  Sought to restore simplicity and spirituality to Christianity  Rejected Calvinism  Founded on the beliefs of Margaret Fell and George Fox arguing for believers “inner light”  No ministers at meetings; converts would quake when possessed Penn’s Frame of Gov’t applied Quaker ideals to politics w/o a legal church

16  Crowds mingled at revivals  Baptists allowed slaves to worship  German Moravians used Christ’s suffering to convert Indians  Natives generally began to reject colonial society and separate themselves



19  Britain came to rely more heavily on American trade Sugar, rum, tobacco, rice  These societies were organized around plantation economies  By 1700 British supplanted Portuguese as slavers  By 1750 half of Britain’s exports came from sugar or tobacco

20  Slave trade could bring 10 times the value of a purchased slave at market  Growth of slave trade led to growth in related industries Shipbuilding, port construction, weapons, sugar, tobacco, rum, textiles, iron  commercial expansion led to growth in Britain’s Navy

21  Slave system likely displaced 9-11 million Africans altering continental societies  Wars and raids between states and rival groups contributed growing number of slaves  Middle Passage was brutal Overcrowding, little nutrition, unsanitary, punishments, 1 in 10 trips saw revolts; at least 1000 died Probably a million died of sickness Dysentry, scurvy, measles, yellow fever, small pox

22  Conditions in New World were no better 10 hours of work, shabby shelter, paltry diet, brutal discipline 10 times cheaper to buy new slaves than care for them  After Bacon’s Rebellion coastal Virginia and the Carolinas turned to slavery

23  By 1720 African slaves made up 20% of Chesapeake society Within 30 years, a third (3/4s were American born) Some owners purchase females for growth  1692 VA law stated that English and Africans could not copulate  1705 all non-Christian imports counted as slaves

24  Mid Atlantic slaves fared better than Caribbean and Chesapeake counterparts  Tobacco was less labor intensive  Disease didn’t spread as easily  Profits were lower and care of slaves was necessary

25  SC turned to profitable rice cultivation  In some areas 80% of population was slaves  Work tougher, sun hotter, disease rampant  To discourage rebellion, diverse groups were needed from different parts of Africa

26  Marriages began slowly, ethnic lines were crossed  Languages assimilated, created and even died off (Gullah, Geechee)  Crafts, rituals were retained and syncretized  Education and possessions limited  Lashings, chainings, humiliations, amputations, movement restrictions

27  Resistance took all forms: fleeing, dodging work, slowing down, breaking tools, even violence  Stono Rebellion (1739) in Chas., Sc saw large groups of slaves attack and kill at least 25 whites Attempted to march to St. Augustine Subdued within 6 months Led to decline in slave importation


29  Largest ports in the North closely linked to Indies Rum, fish, furniture, bread  Stable merchant class developed  By 1750s the largest cities neared 20,000 (Boston, NYC, Philly) the smaller at 10,000 (Chas., Newport)  Nearly half of NE society was of the “middling ranks”  On the bottom were hordes of laborers

30  Puritan women essential to the household economy, duty bound to be subservient  Land was the most crucial asset The frontier was always an option for more land  Puritan society doubled in 25 years Society broke down as inheritance dwindled, land was bought up and traditional methods of family control fell apart  Families shrunk, frontier exploration expanded, yields increased and localized exchange grew

31  Better land and growing season, mild climate  Population quadrupled during early 18 th  Living conditions were diverse 1 or 2 room houses, stone mansions, small farms, slaveholding  Excess labor available  Quaker dominated, banned slavery  German influx of Protestants  Scots and Irish came too

32  Society was not just slave and master  Many gentry lacked aristocracy and connections to attain wealth and appointments  After Bacon’s Rebellion taxes and voting restrictions lowered creating alliance and allegiance  More affluent competed with one another Sons educated at best schools Brick mansions outward wealth Mirror the wealthy of England

33  Interior and rural communities were largely non-English  Less sophisticated and less connected to Atlantic economy  Independent spirit and closer to egalitarian  Little to no representation, few taxes or official justice

34  The commercial success of colonies might have led to more lenient colonial policies dubbed Salutary Neglect Local assemblies controlled taxation and appointments Parliament had no representatives from the colonies but had authority over them Not physical representation but “virtual”  more voting age citizens reside in the colonies than in Britain


36  1600 2 million Indians east of Miss., 1700 250,000  Drawn into the Atlantic economy, natives attacked one another  Wars over population evolved into wars over territory  Strategy of playing French and British off one another was fraying  Border disputes became frequent

37  GA subsidized as a buffer colony to protect SC rice  Its proximity to FL and increased naval seizure likely led to conflict  War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1748) began as British assault on N FL Spain reinforced in GA Oglethorpe ambushed Spanish units on St. Simons ended Spanish expansion in the South Treaty of Aix la Chappelle (1748) restored French and British possession, eliminated Spanish from New World

38  King George’s War (1744-1748) FR, SPN/ ENG—American theater of War of Austrian Succession  Conflict over Nova Scotia and Ohio borderlands  French had also began creating border fortifications linking Canada to Louisiana Largely fought by native allies without much aid from mother countries  British created OH Company in 1747 to counter French control

39  1754 Col. George Washington sent to protest French claims at Ft. Duquense  Washington was overwhelmed, surrendered  1755 Gen. Braddock attacked again and was killed 70% casualty rate  British sent reinforcements  1756 French and Indian War for control of North America breaks out



42  Shortly after conflict began a larger global war broke out (7 Years War) included Prussians, Austrians, Russians, French, British 1763 Treaty of Paris gave British control of Canada, land south along Miss., all of Eastern North America Drove French from India, Martinique, Guadaloupe Drove Spanish from Cuba, Florida and the Philipines Proclamation Line of 1763 prohibited settlement beyond Appalachians



45  Many natives were alarmed at the new British Dominion  Neolin, a revivalist, advocated pan-Indian resistance  Ottawa chief Pontiac led a rebellion from NY to MN Agreed to compromise and recognize British ascendance  Paxton, PA settlers marched on Philly to demand anti-Indian militias



48  British technology and output were growing quickly  Americans extended more credit and bought 30% of British exports  Access to credit allowed farming and business expansion  Colonists bought more consumer goods leading to a trade deficit and recession Living standards had increased but colonists were dependant

49  Eastern land became scarce; land disputes erupted  More yeoman and tenant farmers headed inland  SC raids on property led to a vigilante group—The Regulators Suppressed outlaws Demanded interior representation Sought equal tax distribution

50  NC recession nearly bankrupted tobacco farmers Creditors took them to court Regulator mobs resisted and demanded reforms Royal Gov. suppressed leaving 30 dead and executing leaders  Regulators were unable to take power from the elite, but did force concessions

51  Trade and Navigation Acts highly regulated how colonies could trade  Hat Act (1732) prohibited selling and exporting hats as well as hiring blacks in hat industry  Sugar and Molasses Act (1733) extra taxes on non British molasses  Iron Act (1750) prohibited growth of iron industry outside of raw metals


53  Colonists began to dominate Atlantic trade 95% of continental and Caribbean traffic, 75% of Atlantic  Relied on British credit saw a drain of cash to England  Small banks began issuing currency  Parliament Act (1751) prohibited establishment of banks and paying private debts with paper money


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