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Unit 8 Notes: World War I Indicators USHC 5.4 & 5.5 U.S. History & The Constitution.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 8 Notes: World War I Indicators USHC 5.4 & 5.5 U.S. History & The Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 8 Notes: World War I Indicators USHC 5.4 & 5.5 U.S. History & The Constitution

2 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of domestic & foreign developments that contributed to the emergence of the United States as a world power in the 20 th century. USHC-5.4: Analyze the causes & consequences of the United States’ involvement in World War I, including the failure of neutrality & the reasons for The declaration of war, the role of propaganda in creating a unified war effort, the limitations of individual liberties, & Woodrow Wilson’s leadership in the Treaty of Versailles & the creation of the League of Nations.

3 The Causes & Course of World War I: M.A.I.N. causes of World War I: M - Militarism: the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. A - Secret Alliances: the creation of 2 major defense alliances in Europe by 1907: - Triple Entente (Allies) - Triple Alliance (Central Powers) I - Imperialism: as Germany industrialized, it competed with France & Britain in the contest for colonies = source of raw materials & a market for finished goods. N - Nationalism: the driving force; a devotion to the interests & culture of one’s nation. Ch. 19.1: World War I Begins

4 “Nationalism” (continued): - A ‘Nation’ refers to a group of people who share a common language, religion, history and traditions. - Not all nations had states; many were included in empires. - Ethnic & ideological differences led to conflict within these empires. - Nationalism also spurred competition among states in military strength & led European nations to establish a complex system of military alliances. - Russia, France & England formed an alliance called the Allies (Triple Entente). - Germany, Austria-Hungary, & the Ottoman Empire formed a competing alliance called the Central Powers (Triple Alliance). - The newly united countries of Germany & Italy were anxious to establish colonies to gain wealth & international influence, & competed with other nations to do so. Ch. 19.1: World War I Begins

5 Europe 1890 Balance of power prevails Great Britain pleased. France fears Germany. Russia isolated, seeks allies. Germany & Austria fear Russia. Italy & Ottoman Empire weak but strategically located.

6 Italy The Central Powers (Triple Aliiance) German Empire Austria-Hungary Italy (earlier in the war) Ottoman Empire Bulgaria The Allies (Triple Entente Italy (later in the war ) France Russian Empire Great Britain Serbia Romania The Alliance System

7 The Alliance System at the Start of the War

8 - 1914: The igniting incident of the Great War was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist. - The resulting confrontation between Austria-Hungary & Serbia quickly involved much of Europe in conflict due to the alliance system. Ch. 19.1: World War I Begins

9 - The U.S. declared neutrality at the outbreak of the war, however various factors challenged American neutrality & eventually led to the involvement of the U.S. in the Great War. - The traditional trading partnership with Great Britain & the blockade of German ports by the British navy severely limited American trade with Germany. - American businesses made loans to the Allies in order to continue trade. Public opinion was impacted by America’s traditional connection to the British. Ch. 19.1: World War I Begins

10 - The German use of the submarine affected public opinion against Germany & alienated President Wilson, who was incensed by the loss of innocent lives. - The 1915 German U-boat’s sinking of the British passenger ship, the Lusitania, brought about sharp protests from President Wilson but did not bring the United States into the European war. - Instead, Germany pledged to restrict their use of the submarine. Ch. 19.1: World War I Begins

11 - Wilson campaigned for re-election in 1916 on the slogan that “he kept us out of war.” - The interception and publication by the British of Germany’s Zimmerman note to Mexico negatively impacted American public opinion. - On early 1917, revolution in Russia replaced the monarchy with a republic & President Wilson could now consider allying the U.S. with a ‘democratic’ Russia. - The decision of Germany to resume unrestricted submarine warfare in the spring of 1917 & Wilson’s desire to broker a just peace prompted Wilson to ask the Congress to declare war on Germany in April of President Wilson announced his intention to “make the world safe for democracy” and later issued his Fourteen Points. End of 19.1 Notes

12 Pre-1836 Mexican Territory (light green) promised back to Mexican control in accordance with the terms contained in the “Zimmermann Note”. Zimmermann Note

13 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 3rd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #4 (6 & 11 Feb) 4.) How did the trend towards militarism, imperialism, & nationalism lead to the start of WWI? a.) Nations adopted policies that promoted cooperation with all nations. b.) Nations stopped trying to acquire colonies & focused on solving internal issues. c.) Nations became more competitive & were willing to use force to further their growth. d.) Nations became more isolated & refused to form alliances. CORRECT ANSWER: C

14 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up 3rd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #5 (12 & 13 Feb) 5.) What tactic used by the German military ultimately brought the U.S. into World War I? a.) poisonous gases during trench warfare b.) unrestricted submarine warfare c.) mass murder of women & children d.) bombing & destruction of civilian homes CORRECT ANSWER: B

15 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of domestic & foreign developments that contributed to the emergence of the United States as a world power in the 20 th century. USHC-5.4: Analyze the causes & consequences of the United States’ involvement in World War I, including the failure of neutrality & the reasons for The declaration of war, the role of propaganda in creating a unified war effort, the limitations of individual liberties, & Woodrow Wilson’s leadership in the Treaty of Versailles & the creation of the League of Nations.

16 Ch. 19.2: American Power Tips the Balance To meet the government’s need for more fighting power, Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May It required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. - By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act. - almost 3 million were called up. - About 2 million troops reached Europe before the truce was signed, & three-fourths of them saw actual combat. - About 1 in 5 were foreign born. - About 400,000 African Americans served in the armed forces. More than half of them served in France.

17 Ch. 19.2: American Power Tips the Balance - The American Expeditionary Force affected the course of the war by deflecting the last push of the Germans on the western front in France. - Armistice of November 11, 1918: ended fighting between the Allies & Central Powers. - World War I was the bloodiest war in history up to that time: - Deaths numbered about 22 million. - More than half of them civilians million people were wounded, - 10 million more became refugees. - Direct economic costs of the war may have been about $338 billion. - The U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle. - Another 62,000 died of disease. - More than 200,000 Americans were wounded. End of 19.2 Notes

18 Ch. 19.3: The War at Home The mobilization of the home front for the war effort stimulated ethnic & ideological conflicts within the U.S. - Propaganda characterized Germans as “Huns” & resulted in discrimination against Americans & immigrants of German descent. - The passage of the Sedition Act restricted the rights of Americans to voice their ideological objections to the war effort & contributed to the post-war Red Scare.

19 Ch. 19.3: The War at Home - The greatest effect of World War I on African Americans’ lives was that it accelerated the Great Migration, the large-scale movement of hundreds of thousands of Southern African Americans to cities in the North. - Several factors contributed to the tremendous increase in migration. - To escape racial discrimination in the South - A boll weevil infestation, aided by floods & droughts, had ruined much of the South’s cotton fields. - More job opportunities in the North.

20 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of domestic & foreign developments that contributed to the emergence of the United States as a world power in the 20 th century. USHC-5.4: Analyze the causes & consequences of the United States’ involvement in World War I, including the failure of neutrality & the reasons for The declaration of war, the role of propaganda in creating a unified war effort, the limitations of individual liberties, & Woodrow Wilson’s leadership in the Treaty of Versailles & the creation of the League of Nations. USHC-5.5 Analyze the United States rejection of internationalism, including postwar disillusionment, the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty, the election of 1920, and the role of the United States in international affairs in the 1920s.

21 Ch. 19.4: Wilson Fights for Peace President Wilson took a leadership role at the Versailles Conference. - He wanted to create a lasting peace based on the principles of his Fourteen Points which he hoped would eliminate many of the causes of the war, but did not understand the desires of the European leaders of France, Italy, & Great Britain.

22 - The points were divided into 3 groups: - The first 5 points were issues that Wilson believed had to be addressed to prevent another war: 1. There should be no secret treaties among nations. 2. Freedom of the seas should be maintained for all. 3. Tariffs & other economic barriers among nations should be lowered or abolished in order to foster free trade. 4. Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety, thus lessening the possibility of military responses” during diplomatic crises. 5. Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonial peoples as well as the interests of the imperialist powers. Ch. 19.4: Wilson Fights for Peace

23 - The next eight points dealt with boundary changes. - Wilson based these provisions on the principle of self-determination “along historically established lines of nationality.” - In other words, groups that claimed distinct ethnic identities were to form their own nation-states or decide for themselves to what nations they would belong. -The fourteenth point called for the creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crises like those that had sparked the war. -This League of Nations would provide a forum for nations to discuss & settle their grievances without having to resort to war. Ch. 19.4: Wilson Fights for Peace

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25 - The other allies were determined to protect their own national interests. - They imposed a war guilt clause & reparations payments on Germany. -New national borders drawn at the conference based on self determination of peoples could not accommodate all of the complexity of ethnic diversity within Europe. - These actions laid the basis for the next war. Ch. 19.4: Wilson Fights for Peace

26 - President Wilson was able to include the League of Nations in the Treaty of Versailles, however the U.S. Senate was hesitant to involve the U.S. in European affairs on a permanent basis. - Wilson was unwilling to compromise with the Senate & his physical incapacity as a result of a stroke made compromise impossible. - The Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles & did not become a member of the League of Nations. - The U.S. later made a separate peace with Germany & sent observers to meetings of the League of Nations. Ch. 19.4: Wilson Fights for Peace

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