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The United States and World War II

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1 The United States and World War II
The Rise of Dictators and the Road to War

2 Main Ideas * Dictators took control of the governments of Italy, the Soviet Union, Germany and Japan after World War I during the 1920s and 1930s * (Why do you think this was?) * Most Americans did not want to get involved in another American war * (Why not?)

3 * ITALY – Benito Mussolini (1922) * USSR – Joseph Stalin (1926)
* GERMANY – Adolf Hitler ( ) * JAPAN – “Militarism” takes hold (1930s)

4 *Remember the Treaty of Versailles? (How did it treat Germany?)
* By the 1930s, the Great Depression is WORLD-WIDE… especially in Germany! (hyper-inflation, debt, unemployment)

5 The $.99 version of Benito Mussolini’s Rise to Power!

6 Benito Mussolini – Fascist – Italy
* Since the 1870s, the Kingdom of Italy had proved too weak to deal with the country’s growing problems… * Italians felt slighted as a result of the “peace without victory” outcome… * WWI debts, unemployment, uncontrollable strikes, communist, socialist and anarchist threat… * Italian government had to make a choice – Fascism or Communism?

7 Benito Mussolini – Fascist – Italy
* Benito Mussolini organizes the fascist movement in 1919 as a result of the rising tensions in Italy (“Black Shirts”) 1.) Absolute Power of the State: strong centralized gov’t (totalitarian control) – STATE > individual 2.) Rule by a Dictator: charismatic, all-powerful dictators make decisions for the state! 3.) Corporatism: tamed down version of capitalism – private property remains, but means of production are controlled (kind of) 4.) Extreme Nationalism: national glory and fear of outside threats 5.) Superiority of the Nation’s People 6.) Militarism and Imperialism: greatness is shown by conquering and ruling weak nations Mussolini’s Rise to Power After serving in the Italian army during World War I, Mussolini returned home, looking for a way to unify the Italian people. In 1918, he began to deliver emotional speeches, calling for a dictator to head the country. He argued that only a strong leader could unite the people to overcome Italy’s postwar mass unemployment, chaotic political party conflicts, and strikes by socialists and communists. In 1919, Mussolini organized his fascist movement in the northern city of Milan. He formed squads of street fighters who wore black shirts. His “Blackshirts” beat up socialists and communists and threw them out of local governments. The communist revolution in Russia had taken place only two years earlier. Mussolini’s fascist movement quickly gained the support of anti-communist business people, property owners, and middle-class professionals like teachers and doctors. In 1921, Mussolini formed the National Fascist Party. But he still lacked a clear fascist program. He only knew one thing for sure: He wanted to rule Italy. In a speech before thousands of his supporters in October 1922, Mussolini declared, “Either the government will be given to us, or we will seize it by marching on Rome.” A few days later, he unleashed his followers on a massive march to Italy’s capital city. As tens of thousands converged on Rome, government leaders became so unnerved that they resigned. King Victor Emmanuel had the constitutional duty to appoint a new prime minister, who would form the next government. With his Blackshirts and other supporters swarming the streets of Rome, Mussolini demanded that the king appoint him prime minister. The king gave in, and at age 39, Mussolini became Italy’s youngest prime minister on October 29, 1922. Absolute Power of the State: Fascist regimes have a strong centralized state, or national government. The fascist state seeks total control over all major parts of society. Individuals must give up their private needs and rights to serve the needs of the whole society as represented by the state. Rule by a Dictator: A single dictator runs the fascist state and makes all the important decisions. This leader often uses charisma, a magnetic personality, to gain the support of the people. Corporatism: Fascists believe in taming capitalism by controlling labor and factory owners. Unions, strikes, and other labor actions are illegal. Although private property remains, the state controls the economy. Extreme Nationalism: The fascist state uses national glory and the fear of outside threats to build a new society based on the “common will” of the people. Fascists believe in action and looking at national myths for guidance rather than relying on the “barren intellectualism” of science and reason. Superiority of the Nation’s People: Fascists hold up the nation’s people as superior to other nationalities. They typically strengthen and unify the dominant group in a nation while stifling dissent and persecuting minority groups. Militarism and Imperialism: Fascists believe that great nations show their greatness by conquering and ruling weak nations. Fascists believe the state can survive only if it successfully proves its military superiority in war. “Il Duce” "Mussolini, the man who made the Trains Run on Time."

8 Benito Mussolini – Fascist – Italy
* 1921, Mussolini formed the National Fascist Party… * October 1922, Mussolini declared, “Either the government will be given to us, or we will seize it by marching on Rome.” * A real “SMH” moment ensues in the Italian government… * King’s Cabinet resigns and King Victor Emmanuel promptly names Mussolini Prime Minister of Italy. In a speech before thousands of his supporters in October 1922, Mussolini declared, “Either the government will be given to us, or we will seize it by marching on Rome.” A few days later, he unleashed his followers on a massive march to Italy’s capital city. As tens of thousands converged on Rome, government leaders became so unnerved that they resigned. King Victor Emmanuel had the constitutional duty to appoint a new prime minister, who would form the next government. With his Blackshirts and other supporters swarming the streets of Rome, Mussolini demanded that the king appoint him prime minister. The king gave in, and at age 39, Mussolini became Italy’s youngest prime minister on October 29, 1922. * By 1924, Fascists controlled Italian Parliament and IL DUCE had embarked on his totalitarian control of politics, the economy and the state!

9 Joseph Stalin – Communist – Soviet Union
Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin * Lead the Bolsheviks in their October Revolution in 1917 * Lenin’s handpicked successor… * Not on Stalin’s watch! * Military leader in the Red Army * Lenin’s #2 man and “heir-apparent” * Father of the Soviet Union! (USSR) * Eventually became General Secretary of the Central Committee

10 Joseph Stalin – Communist – Soviet Union
“From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.” – Karl Marx * What does the Marx quote mean? (Marxism) * A TRUE Communist society is a form of UTOPIAN society where: 1.) Private property is unnecessary as all men only use that which he needs 2.) All men are sustained by, supported by, and occupied at the public expense (communal living) 3.) Every citizen will make his contribution to the community according to his capacity, his talent and his age In the Marxist view, such an arrangement will be made possible by the abundance of goods and services that a developed communist society will produce; the idea is that, with the full development of scientific socialism and unfettered productive forces, there will be enough to satisfy everyone's needs… 1.) Nothing in society belongs to anyone, either as a personal possession or as capital goods, except the things for which the person has immediate use, for either his needs, his pleasures, or his daily work. 2.) Every citizen will be a public man, sustained by, supported by, and occupied at the public expense. 3.) Every citizen will make his particular contribution to the activities of the community according to his capacity, his talent and his age; it is on this basis that his duties will be determined, in conformity with the distributive laws. * Communism is a classless, moneyless and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production of society. * Marxists believed that to attain communism, violent revolution of the working class (proletariat) was necessary to overthrow the capitalist class (bourgeoisie)…

11 Joseph Stalin – Communist – Soviet Union
* 1922 – Lenin suffers a stroke and retires (kind of) * Argument ensues between Trotsky and Stalin – names called, lives threatened – and then… * 1923 – Trotsky has a heart attack. * 1924 – Lenin dies and Stalin consolidates power throughout the Soviet Union and by 1926 has killed those who were loyal to Trotsky and any of his opposition within the Party!

12 Joseph Stalin – Communist – Soviet Union
* Stalin launched a massive program for industrialization (railroads, steel mills, military hardware)… Five-Year Plan to “catch and overtake” the leading capitalist countries in the world. * EXAMPLE) From 1928 to 1937, steel production increased from 4 million tons to 18 million tons… * Stalin was a paranoid who oppressed and often killed (purged) anyone who was perceived as a threat to his power * By the late 1930s, the USSR was weak from the removal of its best and brightest – but at least Stalin was secure!

13 Joseph Stalin – Communist – Soviet Union
* He also started a revolution in Soviet agriculture forcing peasants to participate in collectivization (this meant the pooling of farmlands, animals, and equipment for the sake of more efficient, and state-run, large-scale production) * Knowing that the well-to-do peasants (kulaks) would not accept this, Stalin decided to “liquidate them as a class” (millions were killed outright or sent to forced-labor camps – GULAGS – to suffer a slow death)

14 Collectivization of farms
* Individual farms (Kulaks) * Each has own farmhouse, Tractor, Equipment, etc. * Farmers make $ based on how productive they are… * The more productive, the more $ they make!

15 Collectivization of farms
* Collective farm – state (government) owned, all equipment and Housing, pooled together. * Everyone gets paid the same wages. * All profits go to government, which then pays the workers. * No incentive, no ownership of land. * By 1935, almost ALL agriculture in the Soviet Union has been COLLECTIVIZED Workers live in a communal village, in gov’t housing projects

16 Collectivization of farms
* Many of the peasants refused to cooperate with the Collectivization efforts of Stalin, so, what did they do? (From 1932 to 1933, 10 millions peasants died due to FAMINE) * To wipe out any remaining resistance, Stalin unleashed terror to crush opposition through a series of purges (750,000 were executed between 1936 and 1938 and those who were not executed were sent to forced labor camps, collectively known as the Gulag)

17 The $.99 version of Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power!

18 Adolf Hitler – Nazi – Germany
* Adolf Hitler was a veteran of World War I – coming back from the War, he joined the German Workers' Party in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. * 1923, Hitler attempted a coup d'état in Munich – the Beer Hall Putsch (failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf – “My Struggle”) * In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlines the Nazi philosophy: 1.) Anti-Communist 2.) Anti-Semitic 3.) Militaristic 4.) Acquisition of Lebensraum (“living space”) 5.) Pro-German (Hitler was Austrian) * He blames Marxists, Jews and the Weimar Republic Parliament for problems… Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the German Workers' Party (precursor of the NSDAP) in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in In 1923, he attempted a coup d'état in Munich, known as the Beer Hall Putsch. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, antisemitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. After his appointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism. * By 1930, after the economic meltdown worldwide, the Nazi party had gained 18% of votes in Parliament… (from 2% in 1928)

19 Adolf Hitler – Nazi – Germany
* By 1933, Hitler had been a Presidential candidate, the Nazi’s had gained 44% of votes in Parliament and President Paul von Hindenburg had appointed Hitler Chancellor of the Weimar Republic! (the Nazis were rollin’…) * Hitler had petitioned the President to dissolve the Parliament (several times, to no avail) – so what does he do? * Well, allegedly, he did not burn down the Reichstag in 1933 – Communists did! (Hitler, being the opportunist he was, encouraged Pres. Von Hindenburg to suspend basic rights and allow detention without trial) In 1932 Hitler ran against von Hindenburg in the presidential elections. The viability of his candidacy was underscored by a 27 January 1932 speech to the Industry Club in Düsseldorf, which won him support from many of Germany's most powerful industrialists. However, Hindenburg had support from various nationalist, monarchist, Catholic, and republican parties, and some social democrats. Hitler used the campaign slogan "Hitler tuber Deutschland" ("Hitler over Germany"), a reference to both his political ambitions and to his campaigning by aircraft. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 35% of the vote in the final election. Although he lost to Hindenburg, this election established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. * Legislation was also passed in parliament which passed legislative authority to Hitler’s cabinet!

20 Adolf Hitler – Nazi – Germany
* By 1934, Hitler had gained full control of legislative and executive branches of government! (Hitler became Germany's head of state with the title of der Führer) “At the risk of appearing to talk nonsense I tell you that the National Socialist movement will go on for 1,000 years… Don't forget how people laughed at me 15 years ago when I declared that one day I would govern Germany. They laugh now, just as foolishly, when I declare that I shall remain in power!” – Adolf Hitler * As Head of State, Hitler: 1.) bullied opposing parties into disbanding 2.) killed his opponents within the Nazi party 3.) took supreme control over military forces 4.) consolidated his political power * Vowed to reverse effects of Great Depression and Treaty of Versailles!

21 Militarists in Japan * Imperial rule had been restored to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji (almost all leaders in Japanese society during the Meiji period – whether in the military, politics or business – were ex-samurai or descendants of samurai) * Meiji government viewed Japan as threatened by western imperialism (policy was to strengthen economic and industrial foundations, so that a strong military could be built to defend Japan against outside powers) imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period. The period spanned from 1868 to 1912 and was responsible for the emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century… The military had a strong influence on Japanese society from the Meiji Restoration. Almost all leaders in Japanese society during the Meiji period (whether in the military, politics or business) were ex-samurai or descendants of samurai, and shared a set of values and outlooks. The early Meiji government viewed Japan as threatened by western imperialism, and one of the prime motivations for the Fukoku Kyohei policy was to strengthen Japan's economic and industrial foundations, so that a strong military could be built to defend Japan against outside powers…

22 Militarists in Japan * Into the 1920s, Japan’s economy began to struggle when it’s exports failed to support it’s imports… * Commence the 1930s Great Depression – U.S. raises tariffs and Japan’s economy worsens… * Remember those pesky Japanese military leaders? (their solution to these problems was to acquire more territory!) * 1931, Japan launched an attack on resource-rich Manchuria (within a few days Japanese armed forces had occupied the region of China)

23 Militarists in Japan * 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations (after criticism for Manchurian Incident) * 1937, the second Sino-Japanese War broke out (and Japan essentially controlled east coast of China until 1945) * 1940, Japan occupied French Indochina – Vietnam (upon agreement with the French Vichy government, and joined the Axis powers; Germany and Italy) * ALL EXAMPLES OF JAPANESE AGGRESSION PRIOR TO WORLD WAR II AND JAPAN’S ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR! 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations since she was heavily criticized for her actions in China. July 1937, the second Sino-Japanese War broke out. A small incident was soon made into a full scale war by the Kwantung army which acted rather independently from a more moderate government. The Japanese forces succeeded in occupying almost the whole coast of China and committed severe war atrocities on the Chinese population, especially during the fall of the capital Nanking. However, the Chinese government never surrendered completely, and the war continued on a lower scale until 1945. In 1940, Japan occupied French Indochina (Vietnam) upon agreement with the French Vichy government, and joined the Axis powers Germany and Italy. These actions intensified Japan's conflict with the United States and Great Britain which reacted with an oil boycott. The resulting oil shortage and failures to solve the conflict diplomatically made Japan decide to capture the oil rich Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and to start a war with the US and Great Britain.

24 FDR and American Neutrality
The Neutrality Acts, * Nye Senate Committee… * Arms industry pushed U.S. into WWI * Neutrality Act of 1935 1.) embargo on arms, ammunition or implements of war to nations at war 2.) travel restrictions 3.) 6 month expiration date * Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935) * FDR’s “moral embargo” of Italy * Neutrality Act of 1936 1.) arms embargo on countries at war 3.) ban on loans to countries at war * Spanish Civil War (1936) * Neutrality Act of 1937 2.) travel ban on warring nations’ ships 3.) trade with warring country on a cash-and-carry basis


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