2Vocabulary IPhilip II: King during Spain’s Golden Age of Empire (Spanish Netherlands, American Colonies, Portugal, Africa, Indies) Defended of Catholicism vs. Muslims/Protestants.Absolute Monarch: Kings/Queens who held all of the power within their states’ boundaries. Control every aspect of societyDivine Right: Chosen by god, power given by god, acts as a “God’s Representative” earth. (Almost God like…. But doesn’t challenge God)Edict of Nantes: Declaration of religion toleration in FranceCardinal Richelieu: Strong minister who “ruled” France for the weak king Louis XIII.
3Vocabulary IISkepticism: Idea that nothing can ever be known for certain (critic) attitude of doubt towards churches. “First step in finding the truth”Louis XIV: The Sun King, “I am the State” Strongest King of his time. King at 4. Grand styleJean Baptiste Colbert: France’s minister of Finance. Made France Self- Sufficient (no imports) encouraged people to move to French Canada (Fur Trade)War of the Spanish Succession: War from in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family control Spain as well as France.
4Vocabulary IIIThirty Years’ War: European conflict over religion and territory and for power among ruling families (Hapsburg Dynasty)Maria Theresa: Austrian Ruler (Female ruler) daughter is Marie Antoinette who is the wife of Louis XVI (religious)Fredrick The Great: King of Prussia (militaristic)Seven Years’ War: Conflict in Europe/Americas/India, forces of Britain and Prussia battled Austria, France, Russia and other Countries (French and Indian War)
5Vocabulary IVIvan the Terrible: Absolute ruler of Russia (Czar), Good and Bad Periods (after his wife Anastasia died) . Rode around and killed “traitors”Peter the Great: Absolute ruler of Russia, modernized Russia by ending serfdom, “Grand Embassy of Europe” Reforms Russia by Westernizing Russia.Westernization: Adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western-especially European/American countries.
6SPAIN’S EMPIRE AND EUROPEAN ABSOLUTISM CHAPTER 21:1
7QuestionsWhat was the significance of England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada?Why did the Dutch revolt against the Spanish?Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power?Identified the causes the Age of Absolute Empire.
8A Powerful Spanish Empire Philip II’s EmpireMost Powerful Empire in the WorldGold Mines + Colonies + EncomiendasIncludes Spain, Spanish Netherlands, Americas, parts of IndiesDeeply religionsTook over Portugal (no heir to throne)American Mines400,000 lbs of Gold10 years span 16,000 lbs of SilverDefender of CatholicismAgainst Muslims (Africa) and Protestants (Europe)
9Philip II’s Palace: The Escorial Reflection of Wealth and ReligionMonasteriesBuilt to demonstrate power/prestige of the Spanish EmpireSupported by Gold/Silver from Americas
10Defeat of the Spanish Armada Philip II challenged Queen Elizabeth I to a warPunish England for being ProtestantElizabeth supported Spanish Protestants who challenged Philip II’s Power/Dutch RebelsSpanish Armada has the Most powerful NavyMost shipsLacked cannons and trained menBritish were skilled sailors/private interestsUsed “Fire Ships”Results of the BattlesSteady decline in Spanish Power.England asserts itself as Powerful Country
11Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature Great Wealth Supported the Arts: Writers/ArtistsEl Greco: Brilliant colors, distorted the human figure, expressed emotion symbolically (Deep Catholic Faith of Spain) Topics: MartyrsDiego Velazquez50 years after GrecoPhilip IV’s royal painterPortraits of Royal family and “court life”Used rich colors
12Don Quixote de la Mancha “Birth of the Modern European Novel”Author: Miguel de CervantesWrote about a poor Spanish nobleman who went crazy after reading too many books about heroic knightsRusty Suite of Armor/Feeble HorseWindmills = GiantsWishbone 1Wishbone 2
13The Spanish Empire Weakens Gold and Silver from Americas made the Spanish rich!!!Lead to Long-Term ProblemsSevere Inflation (decline in the value of money)Spain's Population growingMerchants raise pricesSilver flooded market and value droppedExpelled the Jews/Moors (Muslims)Lost businessmen/MerchantsTax Burden put on the lower classesNO MIDDLE CLASSGuilds (Labor Unions) used old methods of productionCost more to manufacture cloth/goodsBought more from France, England and NetherlandsFinancing Wars (Barrowed Money)Barrowed from German and Italian Bankers!!Spain declared Bankruptcy 3x’sDutch RevoltLittle in common: Netherlands are “Calvinist”1,500 Dutch Protestants died11 year fightNorthern States: Netherlands (Protestant)Southern States: Belgium (Catholic)
14The Independent Dutch Prosper United Provinces of NetherlandsReligious toleration/elected governorsBest Art and Banks (Florence of old)Rembrandt van RijnThe Night WatchJan VermeerDomestic paintings (everyday life)
15Dutch Trading Empire The Merchant class grew Solid farm production Sold to highest bidderControl of Trade RoutesLargest Fleet In The World4,800 shipsDutch East India Company(Trading company owned by the Dutch Government)Dominated Spice Trade$$$$$$$
16Absolutism In Europe Theory of Abolitionism Kings/Queens have complete control over everything in their country!ABSOLUTE POWER!Control every aspect of society.Divine Right TheoryGrowing Power of Europe's MonarchsCentralized AuthorityDecline of FeudalismRise of CitiesGrowth of National KingdomsBreakdown in Church PowerReligious/Territorial battlesHigh tensions (taxes/wars) made strong rulers“Their goal was to free themselves of those who challenge their power and authority!”
17Absolutism Causes Effects Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertaintyThe growth of armies to deal with conflicts cause rulers to raise taxes to pay troopsHeavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revoltRulers regulated religious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideasRules increased the size of their courts to appear more powerfulRulers created bureaucracies (people who work for gov.) to control their countries economies
18Absolute Emperors Long Term Effects Revolution in FranceWestern European Influence in RussiaEnglish political reforms influence U.S. Democracy
19QuestionsWhat was the significance of England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada?Why did the Dutch revolt against the Spanish?Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power?Identified the causes the Age of Absolute Empire.
21Religious Wars and Power Struggles France: Religious Wars Create a Crisis ( )St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in ParisHuguenots vs. CatholicsHenry of NavarreTook the throne of France in 1589Converted to Catholicism to end religious warfareEdict of Nantes: Allowed to Huguenots (French Protestants) freedom of religion, ending religious warfare
22Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Weak ruler/king and needed helpCardinal Richelieu becomes a “Prime Minister”Catholic Church Official is ruler of FranceMoved against Huguenots/Hapsburg Dynasty rulers that surrounded France
23Louis XIV: The Sun King “I Am The State” Louis, the Boy King King at the age of 5Real power rested with Cardinal MazarinLouis Takes Control (1661)Was determined to be a strong leader unlike his fatherExcluded nobles from all royal councilsIntendantsJean Baptiste ColbertFinancial MinisterSelf-Sufficient FranceHigh tariffs on importsGrand Style8:30 wake up100 servantsNobles lived in Palace
25Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Expanding BoardersWar of the Spanish Succession20 Million peopleStrongest armyAttacked the DutchEuropean Wide alliance against France (why?)Charles II of Spain died. No HeirLouis XIV’s grandson chosen (Bourbons)European Countries blocked this (14 years)Britain StrengthensGibraltarslave trade rightsAmerican Colonies (North East)
26Louis’s Death and Legacy: Pain and Suffering NO more! PositivesNegativesFrance is the best example of an Absolute MonarchPowerfulAbove all in art, literature, statesmanshipMilitary leaderStrong colonies (goods/trade)Constant warfarePalace at VersaillesStaggering debtHigh taxesAbuse of powerLead to French Revolution
27Main IdeasHow is Louis XIV a great example of an Absolute Emperor? (5 reasons/examples)
32The Thirty Years’ WarGermany’s Differences in Religion: Catholics vs. ProtestantsCaused by Martin Luther and the ReformationCatholics, Protestants and CalvinistsCatholic League and Protestant UnionCauses of The Thirty Years’ WarHoly Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II (Catholic) became ruler of a Protestant area; BohemiaTwo phases of WarHapsburg victories and Hapsburg defeats (You win some….You loose some…)France Backed the Protestants b/c they did not other European rulers to be as powerful as the French king!
34Effects of the Thirty Years’ War Destroyed the Central Europe: Germany4 million diedGermany’s trade, agriculture, economy was ruined (100 years)The Peace of Westphalia (1648)Weakened Hapsburg Dynasty of Spain and AustriaFrance gained German lands (WWI)Ended religious wars in EuropeNew Peace Negotiations: Everyone meets in one area to discuss peace treatyStates move away from identity based on religion and more on Nationalism!!
35States Form in Central Europe Three major EmpiresKingdom of Poland, Holy Roman Empire and Ottoman EmpireDifferences in EconomyWestern European Serfs: Looser Laws, More FreedomOld Serfs become capitalists: $$$$Central European Serfs: Stronger Laws, Less FreedomWeaker Kings b/c nobility limited their power
36Central Europe: Austria and Prussia Grow Austria GrowsPrussia GrowsHapsburgs in AustriaWon territory during Thirty Years’ WarCentralized Government/Strong ArmyMaria TheresaStrong female rulerFor the PeopleUnified small kingdoms after the Thirty Years’ WarFrederick William: Great ElectorStrong Army80,000Frederick the GreatMilitaristic and fair
37Rulers of Central Europeans Maria TheresaFrederick The Great
38War of Austrian Succession Maria Theresa takes over Austria:1740Frederick the Great takes over Prussia:5 months laterFrederick Invades AustriaWar of Austrian SuccessionAustria defeated the PrussiansHungary/France/Russia/Au striaEngland/PrussiaSeven Years War (FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR!!)Europe, North America, IndiaFrance lost colonies in North AmericaEngland gained sole possession of India (Jewel In The Crown)
40Absolute Rulers In Russia From Ivan to the RomanovsIvan The TerribleMarried Anastasia1st to use “Czar” (Absolute)Competed for power with Boyars, or landowning noblesPolice Force to find “traitors” killed his sonRise of the RomanovsIn 1613, Michael Romanov was chosen to be Czar
41Peter The Great Comes to Power Great Reformer!!!Tall with a TemperRussia’s Differences From EuropeRussia’s peasants lived as serfs until the 1800sHad been isolated from the West after the Mongol ConquestRussia followed Eastern Orthodox ChristianityRussia looked to Constantinople not Rome!No Seaports!!! (ice)
42Peter Visits the West Peter was fascinated by the “West” Russia needed a “Warm” Water PortGrand Embassy to learn about the Western culturesWesternization: To Make Russia Stronger/Updated
43Peter Forces Changes On Russia “For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary… our people will not do it unless forced to.”Controlled Eastern Orthodox ChurchAbolished the PatriarchReduced the Power of the Nobles (Boyers)Hired European soldiers to train his armyLifetime job, 200,000 menIntroduced potatoesEstablished NewspapersIncreased the status of womenNobles to dress like westernersSchools: Navigation, science and technologyForced to study abroad
44A New Capital Finally….. Warm Water!! St. Petersburg Fought Sweden for a port on the Baltic Sea“Window to Europe”21 year warSt. Petersburg became Russia’s new capitalSwamp Land25, ,000 serfs died
45Parliament Limits The English Monarchy Chapter 21:5
46Parliament Limits English Monarchy Monarchs Defy ParliamentMonarchs try to rule absolutelyStrong monarchy built by Queen ElizabethJames I and Charles I attempt to rule absolutelyParliament forces Charles to sign Petition of Right (see page 614)
47English Civil WarCavaliers (supported King) vs. Roundheads (supported Parliament)Oliver Cromwell leads Roundheads to victory in 1647Charles I is beheaded for treason against Parliament
48Oliver Cromwell’s Rule Cromwell became a Puritan dictator, invaded Ireland and passed laws against sports, theatre, and dancingNO FUN PURITANS!Established Commonwealth (republic)In 1659, Cromwell died, was replaced by Charles IICharles II ReignsReplaces Cromwell and Reestablishes a MonarchySigned into law habeas corpusRight to Jury
49England’s Catholic Problem James IILimits on Monarch’s PowerBrother of King Charles II of EnglandCatholic King in a Protestant CountryEnglish (Anglicans) did not like him!Parliament Feared Catholic Kings (Pope)James II oldest Daughter Mary is married to William of Orange (Netherlands)In 1688, William of Orange and his wife Mary invaded EnglandGlorious RevolutionJames II left EnglandBloodless Revolution!English Bill of RightsWilliam and Mary signed an agreement with Parliament making England aConstitutional Monarchy: “Parliament and Monarch were equals”Freedom of SpeechNo taxes without Parliaments approvalNo penalty for petitioning the kingKing cannot disband ParliamentProtects Citizens/Parliament from Absolute Rulers!