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Absolute Monarchs In Europe

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1 Absolute Monarchs In Europe
Chapter 21:

2 Vocabulary I Philip II: King during Spain’s Golden Age of Empire (Spanish Netherlands, American Colonies, Portugal, Africa, Indies) Defended of Catholicism vs. Muslims/Protestants. Absolute Monarch: Kings/Queens who held all of the power within their states’ boundaries. Control every aspect of society Divine Right: Chosen by god, power given by god, acts as a “God’s Representative” earth. (Almost God like…. But doesn’t challenge God) Edict of Nantes: Declaration of religion toleration in France Cardinal Richelieu: Strong minister who “ruled” France for the weak king Louis XIII.

3 Vocabulary II Skepticism: Idea that nothing can ever be known for certain (critic) attitude of doubt towards churches. “First step in finding the truth” Louis XIV: The Sun King, “I am the State” Strongest King of his time. King at 4. Grand style Jean Baptiste Colbert: France’s minister of Finance. Made France Self- Sufficient (no imports) encouraged people to move to French Canada (Fur Trade) War of the Spanish Succession: War from in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family control Spain as well as France.

4 Vocabulary III Thirty Years’ War: European conflict over religion and territory and for power among ruling families (Hapsburg Dynasty) Maria Theresa: Austrian Ruler (Female ruler) daughter is Marie Antoinette who is the wife of Louis XVI (religious) Fredrick The Great: King of Prussia (militaristic) Seven Years’ War: Conflict in Europe/Americas/India, forces of Britain and Prussia battled Austria, France, Russia and other Countries (French and Indian War)

5 Vocabulary IV Ivan the Terrible: Absolute ruler of Russia (Czar), Good and Bad Periods (after his wife Anastasia died) . Rode around and killed “traitors” Peter the Great: Absolute ruler of Russia, modernized Russia by ending serfdom, “Grand Embassy of Europe” Reforms Russia by Westernizing Russia. Westernization: Adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western-especially European/American countries.


7 Questions What was the significance of England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada? Why did the Dutch revolt against the Spanish? Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power? Identified the causes the Age of Absolute Empire.

8 A Powerful Spanish Empire
Philip II’s Empire Most Powerful Empire in the World Gold Mines + Colonies + Encomiendas Includes Spain, Spanish Netherlands, Americas, parts of Indies Deeply religions Took over Portugal (no heir to throne) American Mines 400,000 lbs of Gold 10 years span 16,000 lbs of Silver Defender of Catholicism Against Muslims (Africa) and Protestants (Europe)

9 Philip II’s Palace: The Escorial
Reflection of Wealth and Religion Monasteries Built to demonstrate power/prestige of the Spanish Empire Supported by Gold/Silver from Americas

10 Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Philip II challenged Queen Elizabeth I to a war Punish England for being Protestant Elizabeth supported Spanish Protestants who challenged Philip II’s Power/Dutch Rebels Spanish Armada has the Most powerful Navy Most ships Lacked cannons and trained men British were skilled sailors/private interests Used “Fire Ships” Results of the Battles Steady decline in Spanish Power. England asserts itself as Powerful Country

11 Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature
Great Wealth Supported the Arts: Writers/Artists El Greco: Brilliant colors, distorted the human figure, expressed emotion symbolically (Deep Catholic Faith of Spain) Topics: Martyrs Diego Velazquez 50 years after Greco Philip IV’s royal painter Portraits of Royal family and “court life” Used rich colors

12 Don Quixote de la Mancha
“Birth of the Modern European Novel” Author: Miguel de Cervantes Wrote about a poor Spanish nobleman who went crazy after reading too many books about heroic knights Rusty Suite of Armor/Feeble Horse Windmills = Giants Wishbone 1 Wishbone 2

13 The Spanish Empire Weakens
Gold and Silver from Americas made the Spanish rich!!! Lead to Long-Term Problems Severe Inflation (decline in the value of money) Spain's Population growing Merchants raise prices Silver flooded market and value dropped Expelled the Jews/Moors (Muslims) Lost businessmen/Merchants Tax Burden put on the lower classes NO MIDDLE CLASS Guilds (Labor Unions) used old methods of production Cost more to manufacture cloth/goods Bought more from France, England and Netherlands Financing Wars (Barrowed Money) Barrowed from German and Italian Bankers!! Spain declared Bankruptcy 3x’s Dutch Revolt Little in common: Netherlands are “Calvinist” 1,500 Dutch Protestants died 11 year fight Northern States: Netherlands (Protestant) Southern States: Belgium (Catholic)

14 The Independent Dutch Prosper
United Provinces of Netherlands Religious toleration/elected governors Best Art and Banks (Florence of old) Rembrandt van Rijn The Night Watch Jan Vermeer Domestic paintings (everyday life)

15 Dutch Trading Empire The Merchant class grew Solid farm production
Sold to highest bidder Control of Trade Routes Largest Fleet In The World 4,800 ships Dutch East India Company (Trading company owned by the Dutch Government) Dominated Spice Trade $$$$$$$

16 Absolutism In Europe Theory of Abolitionism
Kings/Queens have complete control over everything in their country! ABSOLUTE POWER! Control every aspect of society. Divine Right Theory Growing Power of Europe's Monarchs Centralized Authority Decline of Feudalism Rise of Cities Growth of National Kingdoms Breakdown in Church Power Religious/Territorial battles High tensions (taxes/wars) made strong rulers “Their goal was to free themselves of those who challenge their power and authority!”

17 Absolutism Causes Effects
Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty The growth of armies to deal with conflicts cause rulers to raise taxes to pay troops Heavy taxes led to additional unrest and peasant revolt Rulers regulated religious worship and social gatherings to control the spread of ideas Rules increased the size of their courts to appear more powerful Rulers created bureaucracies (people who work for gov.) to control their countries economies

18 Absolute Emperors Long Term Effects
Revolution in France Western European Influence in Russia English political reforms influence U.S. Democracy

19 Questions What was the significance of England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada? Why did the Dutch revolt against the Spanish? Why did absolute monarchs believe that they were justified in exercising absolute power? Identified the causes the Age of Absolute Empire.

20 The Reign of Louis XIV Chapter 21:2

21 Religious Wars and Power Struggles
France: Religious Wars Create a Crisis ( ) St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris Huguenots vs. Catholics Henry of Navarre Took the throne of France in 1589 Converted to Catholicism to end religious warfare Edict of Nantes: Allowed to Huguenots (French Protestants) freedom of religion, ending religious warfare

22 Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu
Weak ruler/king and needed help Cardinal Richelieu becomes a “Prime Minister” Catholic Church Official is ruler of France Moved against Huguenots/Hapsburg Dynasty rulers that surrounded France

23 Louis XIV: The Sun King “I Am The State” Louis, the Boy King
King at the age of 5 Real power rested with Cardinal Mazarin Louis Takes Control (1661) Was determined to be a strong leader unlike his father Excluded nobles from all royal councils Intendants Jean Baptiste Colbert Financial Minister Self-Sufficient France High tariffs on imports Grand Style 8:30 wake up 100 servants Nobles lived in Palace

24 The Palace at Versailles: $2 Billion Dollars

25 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
Expanding Boarders War of the Spanish Succession 20 Million people Strongest army Attacked the Dutch European Wide alliance against France (why?) Charles II of Spain died. No Heir Louis XIV’s grandson chosen (Bourbons) European Countries blocked this (14 years) Britain Strengthens Gibraltar slave trade rights American Colonies (North East)

26 Louis’s Death and Legacy: Pain and Suffering NO more!
Positives Negatives France is the best example of an Absolute Monarch Powerful Above all in art, literature, statesmanship Military leader Strong colonies (goods/trade) Constant warfare Palace at Versailles Staggering debt High taxes Abuse of power Lead to French Revolution

27 Main Ideas How is Louis XIV a great example of an Absolute Emperor? (5 reasons/examples)

28 Central European Monarchs Clash
Chapter 21:3


30 The Hapsburg Family: Spain, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Italy


32 The Thirty Years’ War Germany’s Differences in Religion: Catholics vs. Protestants Caused by Martin Luther and the Reformation Catholics, Protestants and Calvinists Catholic League and Protestant Union Causes of The Thirty Years’ War Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II (Catholic) became ruler of a Protestant area; Bohemia Two phases of War Hapsburg victories and Hapsburg defeats (You win some….You loose some…) France Backed the Protestants b/c they did not other European rulers to be as powerful as the French king!


34 Effects of the Thirty Years’ War
Destroyed the Central Europe: Germany 4 million died Germany’s trade, agriculture, economy was ruined (100 years) The Peace of Westphalia (1648) Weakened Hapsburg Dynasty of Spain and Austria France gained German lands (WWI) Ended religious wars in Europe New Peace Negotiations: Everyone meets in one area to discuss peace treaty States move away from identity based on religion and more on Nationalism!!

35 States Form in Central Europe
Three major Empires Kingdom of Poland, Holy Roman Empire and Ottoman Empire Differences in Economy Western European Serfs: Looser Laws, More Freedom Old Serfs become capitalists: $$$$ Central European Serfs: Stronger Laws, Less Freedom Weaker Kings b/c nobility limited their power

36 Central Europe: Austria and Prussia Grow
Austria Grows Prussia Grows Hapsburgs in Austria Won territory during Thirty Years’ War Centralized Government/Strong Army Maria Theresa Strong female ruler For the People Unified small kingdoms after the Thirty Years’ War Frederick William: Great Elector Strong Army 80,000 Frederick the Great Militaristic and fair

37 Rulers of Central Europeans
Maria Theresa Frederick The Great

38 War of Austrian Succession
Maria Theresa takes over Austria: 1740 Frederick the Great takes over Prussia: 5 months later Frederick Invades Austria War of Austrian Succession Austria defeated the Prussians Hungary/France/Russia/Au stria England/Prussia Seven Years War (FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR!!) Europe, North America, India France lost colonies in North America England gained sole possession of India (Jewel In The Crown)

39 Absolute Rulers of Russia
Chapter 21:4

40 Absolute Rulers In Russia
From Ivan to the Romanovs Ivan The Terrible Married Anastasia 1st to use “Czar” (Absolute) Competed for power with Boyars, or landowning nobles Police Force to find “traitors” killed his son Rise of the Romanovs In 1613, Michael Romanov was chosen to be Czar

41 Peter The Great Comes to Power
Great Reformer!!! Tall with a Temper Russia’s Differences From Europe Russia’s peasants lived as serfs until the 1800s Had been isolated from the West after the Mongol Conquest Russia followed Eastern Orthodox Christianity Russia looked to Constantinople not Rome! No Seaports!!! (ice)

42 Peter Visits the West Peter was fascinated by the “West”
Russia needed a “Warm” Water Port Grand Embassy to learn about the Western cultures Westernization: To Make Russia Stronger/Updated

43 Peter Forces Changes On Russia
“For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary… our people will not do it unless forced to.” Controlled Eastern Orthodox Church Abolished the Patriarch Reduced the Power of the Nobles (Boyers) Hired European soldiers to train his army Lifetime job, 200,000 men Introduced potatoes Established Newspapers Increased the status of women Nobles to dress like westerners Schools: Navigation, science and technology Forced to study abroad

44 A New Capital Finally….. Warm Water!! St. Petersburg
Fought Sweden for a port on the Baltic Sea “Window to Europe” 21 year war St. Petersburg became Russia’s new capital Swamp Land 25, ,000 serfs died

45 Parliament Limits The English Monarchy
Chapter 21:5

46 Parliament Limits English Monarchy
Monarchs Defy Parliament Monarchs try to rule absolutely Strong monarchy built by Queen Elizabeth James I and Charles I attempt to rule absolutely Parliament forces Charles to sign Petition of Right (see page 614)

47 English Civil War Cavaliers (supported King) vs. Roundheads (supported Parliament) Oliver Cromwell leads Roundheads to victory in 1647 Charles I is beheaded for treason against Parliament

48 Oliver Cromwell’s Rule
Cromwell became a Puritan dictator, invaded Ireland and passed laws against sports, theatre, and dancing NO FUN PURITANS! Established Commonwealth (republic) In 1659, Cromwell died, was replaced by Charles II Charles II Reigns Replaces Cromwell and Reestablishes a Monarchy Signed into law habeas corpus Right to Jury

49 England’s Catholic Problem
James II Limits on Monarch’s Power Brother of King Charles II of England Catholic King in a Protestant Country English (Anglicans) did not like him! Parliament Feared Catholic Kings (Pope) James II oldest Daughter Mary is married to William of Orange (Netherlands) In 1688, William of Orange and his wife Mary invaded England Glorious Revolution James II left England Bloodless Revolution! English Bill of Rights William and Mary signed an agreement with Parliament making England a Constitutional Monarchy: “Parliament and Monarch were equals” Freedom of Speech No taxes without Parliaments approval No penalty for petitioning the king King cannot disband Parliament Protects Citizens/Parliament from Absolute Rulers!

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