Events contributed to the end of the Middle Ages New trade led to growth of towns New Middle class Greater use of money Great Famine Black Death Hundred Years War
Great Famine (1313-1322) Causes: Heavy rains which led to spoiled crops and drowned livestock in flooded fields. Result: Animals were slaughtered for food, all the seed grain was eaten. This led to food shortages, which led to the price of food to increase. Many people began to starve and die People began to question the church for the disaster
The Black Death (1347-1351) Also known as the Bubonic Plaque Rat with fleas carried the disease entered Europe from Asia on trading ships 25 Million people died (1/3 of Europe’s population) People buried in mass graves without any blessings from the church Some claimed it was God’s punishment for sinful living
The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) War between England and France French King died without a heir and the King of England claimed the French throne Each side developed a standing Army with foot soldiers (No more Feudal societies) Knights became less important in battle Joan of Arc (young French Maiden) rallied French troops around the heir to the throne She drove the English out of the City of Orleans and crowned the new French King. Joan was captured by the English and burned at the stake 20 years later the war was over
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The Renaissance Began in Italy because of location by Mediterranean Sea New interest in learning about classical Rome and Greece “Rebirth” As trade increased between Europe and Asia, Italy became the center for banking. Home place of the Pope the church began to collect taxes throughout Europe
The Renaissance The city-states of Milan, Florence, and Siena grew wealthy from banking, farming and making goods. Secularism increased as people began to show greater interest in this world in the life hereafter. People used observations and experience to explain the world, rather than church teachings.
The Renaissance Italian Scholars were impressed by the achievements of pre-Christian artists and thinkers. Renaissance thinkers believed in the power of human reason to explain the world. Humanism placed great dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each person
Johann Gutenberg Invented the Printing Press. Before this everything was copied by hand one by one. The printing press allowed everyone to mass produce books for the first time. This encouraged the spread of new ideas and people began to read.
The Impact of the Renaissance The Artistic Impact (Painting and Sculpture, Architecture) The Political Impact The Economic Impact The Intellectual Impact (Science and Technology)
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The Protestant Reformation Corruption of the Catholic Church and the spirit of the renaissance led people to challenge the pope’s authority. Many entered the clergy to become powerful and wealthy not because of faith. The papacy experienced a loss in spiritual influence because of corrupt leaders of the church
Protestant Reformation People such as Erasmus in Holland and Sir Thomas Moore in England tried to reform the church but church leaders did not respond. In the 16 th century the Catholic Church began to sell indulgances Indulgences- pardons from punishment for committing a sin, allowing the sinner to enter heaven. They pay money to the church in order for their sins to be forgiven.
The pope The pope was using the money from indulgences to build St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome
Martin Luther (1483-1546) Augustinian Monk Posted the Ninety-Five Theses (statements) on a church door in Germany Ninety-Five Theses challenged the Pope’s rights to sell indulgences Luther believed that neither priests or pope’s had special powers to provide salvation. Luther concluded that through faith in God could a person be saved and go to heaven.
Martin Luther People can read the bible and interpret it for themselves to achieve this faith The Pope excommunicated Luther- expelling him from the church Luther burned the pope’s decrees Luther had appear before the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Luther refused and became an Outlaw
Martin Luther Martin Luther established the Lutheran Church Luther translated the New Testament into German and wrote a number of Pamphlets to persuade others. The reformers became known as Protestants
Later Reformers John Calvin started a protestant church in Geneva Calvin stated since God is all knowing, it was predestined who would be saved and who would be sent to Hell. He believed it was God who gave faith to some and denied it to others.
Catholic Counter Reformation Catholic Church fought back against the rise of Protestantism At the council of Trent, the church redefined the Catholic beliefs and ended indulgences The council tried to stop the spread of Protestantism
The Catholic Counter-Reformation The church banned Protestant books Established the Inquisition- Tried and executed persons who were suspected of committing heresy (non-Catholic beliefs) Jesuits- New Catholic Order- they were dedicated to defending and spreading the Catholic faith.