Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 - Section 3 Luther Leads the Reformation"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 17 - Section 3 Luther Leads the Reformation Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church lead to the founding of Protestant churches.
2Let’s remember…. What does reform mean? To change something that is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactoryWhy were people losing faith in the church?Black plague, suffering, etcWhat was the attitude of people during the Renaissance period?Enjoy lifeWhy did the invention of the printing press lead people to criticize the church and clergy?They could interpret the bible for themselves
3Causes of the Reformation Church Authority ChallengedSecularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge Church authorityRulers challenge Church’s powerPrinting press spreads secular ideasNorthern merchants resent paying church taxes
4Criticisms of the Catholic Church Corrupt leaders, extravagant popesPoorly educated priests
5Early Calls for ReformJohn Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over clergy’sDesiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are vocal critics of the ChurchReading religious works, Europeans form own opinions about Church
6Criticize their Church TwoScholar-PriestsCriticize their ChurchThese two priests planted the seedsfor the “Protest”and call for“Reform”in the Church…that 100 years laterwould erupt as the official“Protestant Reformation”led by priestMartin Luther…All three would be excommunicated for their blunt attackson the Church.John Wycliff1320 – 1384John Hus1369 – 1415Bay ofBiscay
7John Wycliff - English priest and professor at Oxford… preached that Jesus, not the Pope, was the true head of Churchcriticized the shameful luxury in which the Pope & priests livedtried translating the Bible into vernacular Englishcharged with heresy, was excommunicatedJohn Wycliff1320 – 1384John Hus – priest from Bohemia and professor at Prague…preached that the Bible, not the Pope, was the authoritycriticized the shameful luxury in which the Pope & priests livedbegan performing the Mass in the people’s vernacular languagecharged with heresy, was excommunicated.John Hus1369 – 1415“Love the Truth. Let others have their Truth.And the Truth will prevail.”John Hus of Bohemia,inscribed on his statue today in Old Town Square,Prague, Czech Republic.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
8Luther Challenges the Church The 95 ThesesMartin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel’s selling of indulgencesIndulgence – a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sinIn 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking “pardon-merchants”Luther’s theses circulate throughout GermanyReformation rejects pope’s authority
11Luther’s TeachingsPeople can win salvation by faith alone, not “good works”Christian teachings must be based on the Bible, not the popeAll people with faith are equal, can interpret the Bible without priests
12The Response to Luther The Pope’s Threat Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520)Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken awayLuther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated
13The Emperor’s Opposition Charles V is Holy Roman EmperorHe issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a hereticLuther and followers begin a separate religious group-Lutherans
16The Peasants’ RevoltInspired by Reformation, German peasants seek end to serfdom (1524)Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die
17Germany at WarSome princes side with Luther, become known as ProtestantsCharles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic ChurchPeace of Augsburg (1555) – each prince can decide religion of his state
18England Becomes Protestant Henry VIII Wants a SonHenry has only daughter, needs male to rule EnglandHenry wants a divorcePope refuses to annul – set aside – his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon
19The Reformation Parliament Parliament passes laws ending pope’s power in EnglandHenry remarries, becomes official head of England’s ChurchThomas More refuses to go against Catholic Church and is beheaded
20Consequences of Henry’s Changes Henry has six wives and three childrenReligious turmoil follows Henry’s death (1547)Protestantism under King Edward, then Catholicism under Queen Mary
21Catherine of AragonLeft by Henry when no male heir.
22Anne Boleyn Married 1533 One of Catherine’s servants. In 1536, she’s accused of adultery and treason. Henry locks her up and has her executed.Her sister was a mistress of Henry’s.Henry was nice and got a skilled swordsman to behead her.
23Jane Seymour Henry married her 11 days after Anne’s execution. She was one of Anne’s servants.Finally bears a male heir.Dies almost two weeks after the birth.
24Anne of Cleaves Married in 1540 Was a political marriage for Henry. Once the political advantage was gone, Henry has the marriage annulled.She fares pretty well.
25Catherine Howard 16 days later, he married Anne Boleyn’s cousin Henry was 49, and she was 19Henry had gained a lot of weight and was in a lot of pain, while she was a free spiritLess than a year into the marriage, rumors of her infidelity beganShe was beheaded and laid to rest near her cousin, Anne Boleyn
26Catherine ParrMarried 1543She survives Henry who dies in 1547.
27Daughter will be “Bloody” Mary I 1553-1558 (Catholic). Henry’s Six Wives :Daughter will be “Bloody” Mary I(Catholic).Catherine of Aragon(divorced)Daughter Elizabeth I(Protestant).Anne Boleyn(beheaded)Son Edward VI(sickly)King Henry VIII of England[ ]He broke England’s ties to the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther.Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish QueenCatherine of Aragonwas not able to produce one.Jane Seymour(died)Anne of Cleves1540(divorced)Kathryn Howard(beheaded)Kathrine Parr(survived)27
28His kidsSo out of those six wives, Henry has three kids that make it out of infancy: Mary by Catherine of Aragon, Elizabeth by Anne Boleyn, and Edward by Jane Seymour.This causes problems.
29Edward VI Becomes king in 1547 at the age of nine. Dies six years later of tuberculosis, arsenic poisoning, or syphilis.During his reign, however, English Protestantism was significantly advanced and developed.Last words: “Oh my Lord God, defend this realm from papistry and maintain Thy true religion.”
30Mary I Queen from 1553-1558. Also known as Bloody Mary. Mary was Catholic and she didn’t like the whole Protestant direction the country had been going in.She turns England back toward Catholicism and has 300 dissenters executed.She also considered herself the only legitimate child of Henry VIII.Dies of probably ovarian cancer in 1558 at the age of 42.
31Elizabeth I One of England’s greatest rulers if not THE greatest. Kinda ironic considering how desperate Henry was for a male heir.Reigns from
32She had a rough time of it early considering that her mother, Anne Boleyn, was beheaded when Elizabeth was only three.The title of ‘princess’ was taken away from her.Henry dies when she’s 13 and she goes to live with Catherine Parr.She becomes fluent in English, Spanish, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek.When she’s 21, she spends two months in the Tower of London (not a pleasant place) because she was implicated in an overthrow plot against Queen Mary.
33Elizabeth Restores Protestantism Henry’s second daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, forms Anglican ChurchAnglican Church is acceptable to moderate Catholics and Protestants
34Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges Some Protestants and Catholics oppose ElizabethPhillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens EnglandElizabeth’s need for money brings conflict with Parliament
35Luther attacks a monk named Tetzel for selling indulgences. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSLuther attacks a monk named Tetzel for selling indulgences.1. In 1517, Luther postshis 95 Theses on thechurch doors atWittenberg.Luther’s words are printed and spread all over Germany and attract many followers.Above: The church doorsAt Luther’s church in Wittenberg. Other pics, Wittenberg, 2002.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
36The Pope realizes Luther is a threat to papal authority. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS2. In 1520, Lutherrefuses to recant atWorms and isexcommunicated.In 1521, he is declaredan outlaw and heretic.The Pope realizes Luther is a threat to papal authority.The H.R.E., is a devout Catholic, and also feels threatened by the uproar.Luther is sheltered by the prince of Saxony where he translates Bible into German.When he returns to Wittenberg, his followers have become a separate religious group – the Lutherans.Charles VHoly Roman EmperorSAXONYFrederick,Prince of Saxonyofferedprotection to LutherMartin LutherPope Leo X
37Religious Wars begin between Catholics and Protestants. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSExcited by Luther’s talk about “religious freedom,” peasants revolt hoping forsocial / economic freedom (an end to serfdom).When the armies of German princes (at Luther’s request) brutally crush this revolt (killing thousands), previous supporters now turn against Luther.3. The Germanpeasants revoltin 1524.Religious Wars begin betweenCatholics and Protestants.
38CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS Charles V fought a 20 year war against the German Protestant princes and defeated them in 1547.But he could not force them to remain in the Catholic Church.The Peace of Augsburg is signed in 1555.The peace settlement ended the war and allowed the ruler of each German state to decide his own state’s religious preference.Martin Luther continued his writings and lectures until his death in 1546.In 1525 Luther had married a former nun named Katharine von Bora. She bore him eight children and outlived him by six years.Charles VHoly Roman EmperorEven today, unlike Catholic priests who take a vow of celibacy, ministers in Protestant churches can get married.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
39Today, the Act of Supremacy remains in effect – CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTSEnglish Parliament approves the Act of Supremacy in 1534.Henry VIII needed to annul his marriage to Catherine so he could remarry in order to get a male heir.The Pope would not allow.So Henry calls Parliament into session and passes the Act of Supremacy.Henry closes all English monasteries; seizes their lands and other Catholic holdings in England;thereby increasing his royal power, as well as his own personal wealth.The Act of Supremacy made the ruler of England the official head of the Church of England – no longer the Catholic Pope.Today, the Act of Supremacy remains in effect –Queen Elizabeth II of England is officially the headof the Anglican Church.PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
40CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS Parliament establishes the Anglican Churchin 1559.Henry’s daughter Mary had tried to restore Catholicism in England after her father’s break with the Pope.Elizabeth I restores Protestantism and asks Parliament to create a national Church of England.The Anglican church becomes the only legal church in England and people were required to attend. Elizabeth tried to create a church that both moderate Catholics and Protestants could accept.After everything her father went through trying to get a male heir –even executing her own mother – it is ironic then that his daughter Elizabeth would turn out to be one of the most politically skilledand well-remembered monarchs in England’s history.She was a master at diplomacy with other European powersand at achieving compromises in her own kingdomin order to maintain peace among squabbling religious groups.Elizabeth IThe “Virgin” QueenRuled England for 45 years!PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School