Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 - Section 3 Luther Leads the Reformation Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church lead to the founding of Protestant churches."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 17 - Section 3 Luther Leads the Reformation Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church lead to the founding of Protestant churches.
Let’s remember…. What does reform mean? To change something that is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory Why were people losing faith in the church? Black plague, suffering, etc What was the attitude of people during the Renaissance period? Enjoy life Why did the invention of the printing press lead people to criticize the church and clergy? They could interpret the bible for themselves
Causes of the Reformation Church Authority Challenged – Secularism, individualism of Renaissance challenge Church authority – Rulers challenge Church’s power – Printing press spreads secular ideas – Northern merchants resent paying church taxes
Criticisms of the Catholic Church – Corrupt leaders, extravagant popes – Poorly educated priests
Early Calls for Reform – John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over clergy’s – Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are vocal critics of the Church – Reading religious works, Europeans form own opinions about Church
Two Scholar-Priests Criticize their Church John Wycliff 1320 – 1384 John Hus 1369 – 1415 Bay of Biscay These two priests planted the seeds for the “Protest” and call for “Reform” in the Church… that 100 years later would erupt as the official “Protestant Reformation” led by priest Martin Luther… All three would be excommunicated for their blunt attacks on the Church.
“Love the Truth. Let others have their Truth. And the Truth will prevail.” -John Hus of Bohemia, -inscribed on his statue today in Old Town Square, Prague, Czech Republic. John Wycliff - English priest and professor at Oxford… preached that Jesus, not the Pope, was the true head of Church criticized the shameful luxury in which the Pope & priests lived tried translating the Bible into vernacular English charged with heresy, was excommunicated John Wycliff 1320 – 1384 John Hus 1369 – 1415 John Hus – priest from Bohemia and professor at Prague… preached that the Bible, not the Pope, was the authority criticized the shameful luxury in which the Pope & priests lived began performing the Mass in the people’s vernacular language charged with heresy, was excommunicated. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Luther Challenges the Church The 95 Theses – Martin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel’s selling of indulgences – Indulgence – a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin – In 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking “pardon-merchants” – Luther’s theses circulate throughout Germany – Reformation rejects pope’s authority
Luther’s Teachings – People can win salvation by faith alone, not “good works” – Christian teachings must be based on the Bible, not the pope – All people with faith are equal, can interpret the Bible without priests
The Response to Luther The Pope’s Threat – Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520) – Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away – Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated
The Emperor’s Opposition – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor – He issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic – Luther and followers begin a separate religious group-Lutherans
The Peasants’ Revolt – Inspired by Reformation, German peasants seek end to serfdom (1524) – Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die
Germany at War – Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants – Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic Church – Peace of Augsburg (1555) – each prince can decide religion of his state
England Becomes Protestant Henry VIII Wants a Son – Henry has only daughter, needs male to rule England – Henry wants a divorce – Pope refuses to annul – set aside – his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon
The Reformation Parliament – Parliament passes laws ending pope’s power in England – Henry remarries, becomes official head of England’s Church – Thomas More refuses to go against Catholic Church and is beheaded
Consequences of Henry’s Changes – Henry has six wives and three children – Religious turmoil follows Henry’s death (1547) – Protestantism under King Edward, then Catholicism under Queen Mary
Catherine of Aragon Left by Henry when no male heir.
Anne Boleyn Married 1533 One of Catherine’s servants. In 1536, she’s accused of adultery and treason. Henry locks her up and has her executed. Her sister was a mistress of Henry’s. Henry was nice and got a skilled swordsman to behead her.
Henry married her 11 days after Anne’s execution. She was one of Anne’s servants. Finally bears a male heir. Dies almost two weeks after the birth. Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleaves Married in 1540 Was a political marriage for Henry. Once the political advantage was gone, Henry has the marriage annulled. She fares pretty well.
Catherine Howard 16 days later, he married Anne Boleyn’s cousin Henry was 49, and she was 19 Henry had gained a lot of weight and was in a lot of pain, while she was a free spirit Less than a year into the marriage, rumors of her infidelity began She was beheaded and laid to rest near her cousin, Anne Boleyn
Catherine Parr Married 1543 She survives Henry who dies in 1547.
King Henry VIII of England [1491-1547] He broke England’s ties to the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal reasons, not religious ones like Luther. Henry needed a male heir and his Catholic Spanish Queen Catherine of Aragon was not able to produce one. Catherine of Aragon 1509-1533 (divorced) Anne Boleyn 1533-1536 (beheaded) Daughter will be “Bloody” Mary I 1553-1558 (Catholic). Daughter Elizabeth I 1558-1603 (Protestant). Jane Seymour 1536-1537 (died) Son Edward VI 1547-1553 (sickly) Anne of Cleves 1540 (divorced) Kathryn Howard 1540-1542 (beheaded) Kathrine Parr 1543-1548 (survived) Henry’s Six Wives :
His kids So out of those six wives, Henry has three kids that make it out of infancy: Mary by Catherine of Aragon, Elizabeth by Anne Boleyn, and Edward by Jane Seymour. – This causes problems.
Edward VI Becomes king in 1547 at the age of nine. Dies six years later of tuberculosis, arsenic poisoning, or syphilis. During his reign, however, English Protestantism was significantly advanced and developed. Last words: “Oh my Lord God, defend this realm from papistry and maintain Thy true religion.”
Mary I Queen from 1553-1558. Also known as Bloody Mary. Mary was Catholic and she didn’t like the whole Protestant direction the country had been going in. – She turns England back toward Catholicism and has 300 dissenters executed. She also considered herself the only legitimate child of Henry VIII. Dies of probably ovarian cancer in 1558 at the age of 42.
Elizabeth I One of England’s greatest rulers if not THE greatest. – Kinda ironic considering how desperate Henry was for a male heir. Reigns from 1558-1603
She had a rough time of it early considering that her mother, Anne Boleyn, was beheaded when Elizabeth was only three. – The title of ‘princess’ was taken away from her. – Henry dies when she’s 13 and she goes to live with Catherine Parr. – She becomes fluent in English, Spanish, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. – When she’s 21, she spends two months in the Tower of London (not a pleasant place) because she was implicated in an overthrow plot against Queen Mary.
Elizabeth Restores Protestantism – Henry’s second daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, forms Anglican Church – Anglican Church is acceptable to moderate Catholics and Protestants
Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges – Some Protestants and Catholics oppose Elizabeth – Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens England – Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict with Parliament
1. In 1517, Luther posts his 95 Theses on the church doors at Wittenberg. Luther attacks a monk named Tetzel for selling indulgences. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS Above: The church doors At Luther’s church in Wittenberg. Other pics, Wittenberg, 2002. Luther’s words are printed and spread all over Germany and attract many followers. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
SAXONY Luther is sheltered by the prince of Saxony where he translates Bible into German. When he returns to Wittenberg, his followers have become a separate religious group – the Lutherans. The Pope realizes Luther is a threat to papal authority. The H.R.E., is a devout Catholic, and also feels threatened by the uproar. 2. In 1520, Luther refuses to recant at Worms and is excommunicated. In 1521, he is declared an outlaw and heretic. Charles V Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo X Martin Luther Frederick, Prince of Saxony offered protection to Luther CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS
3. The German peasants revolt in 1524. Excited by Luther’s talk about “religious freedom,” peasants revolt hoping for social / economic freedom (an end to serfdom). When the armies of German princes (at Luther’s request) brutally crush this revolt (killing thousands), previous supporters now turn against Luther. Religious Wars begin between Catholics and Protestants.
The peace settlement ended the war and allowed the ruler of each German state to decide his own state’s religious preference. Charles V fought a 20 year war against the German Protestant princes and defeated them in 1547. But he could not force them to remain in the Catholic Church. 4.The Peace of Augsburg is signed in 1555. Charles V Holy Roman Emperor Martin Luther continued his writings and lectures until his death in 1546. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS In 1525 Luther had married a former nun named Katharine von Bora. She bore him eight children and outlived him by six years. Even today, unlike Catholic priests who take a vow of celibacy, ministers in Protestant churches can get married. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
Henry closes all English monasteries; seizes their lands and other Catholic holdings in England; thereby increasing his royal power, as well as his own personal wealth. Henry VIII needed to annul his marriage to Catherine so he could remarry in order to get a male heir. The Pope would not allow. So Henry calls Parliament into session and passes the Act of Supremacy. 5. English Parliament approves the Act of Supremacy in 1534. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS The Act of Supremacy made the ruler of England the official head of the Church of England – no longer the Catholic Pope. Today, the Act of Supremacy remains in effect – Queen Elizabeth II of England is officially the head of the Anglican Church. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
The Anglican church becomes the only legal church in England and people were required to attend. Elizabeth tried to create a church that both moderate Catholics and Protestants could accept. Henry’s daughter Mary had tried to restore Catholicism in England after her father’s break with the Pope. Elizabeth I restores Protestantism and asks Parliament to create a national Church of England. 6. Parliament establishes the Anglican Church in 1559. CAUSES EVENT or SITUATION EFFECTS PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Elizabeth I The “Virgin” Queen Ruled England for 45 years! After everything her father went through trying to get a male heir – even executing her own mother – it is ironic then that his daughter Elizabeth would turn out to be one of the most politically skilled and well-remembered monarchs in England’s history. She was a master at diplomacy with other European powers and at achieving compromises in her own kingdom in order to maintain peace among squabbling religious groups.