Presentation on theme: "WWICollins. 2010-20111 WORLD WAR I A Project. World War I I.Long-term Causes of WWI A.Nationalism 1. A zealous devotion to the interests and culture of."— Presentation transcript:
World War I I.Long-term Causes of WWI A.Nationalism 1. A zealous devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation. 2. Nationalism led to competitive and antagonistic rivalries among nations.
WWICollins. 2010-20113 World War I –B. Imperialism 1. For many centuries, European nations had been building empires and, in so doing, slowly extended their own economic and political control over various peoples.
WWICollins. 2010-20114 World War I--Imperialism The Industrial Revolution:…had given Europeans and Americans the means and the motives to seek GLOBAL DOMINATION. That is exactly what many nations do! Europeans….divide up Africa and challenge the Muslim world. British take over in India. Asia becomes a part of the world picture. Militaries are suddenly on the alert.
WWICollins. 2010-20115 World War I--Imperialism In Western Europe….Fierce competition among countries competing for control of overseas land. And…militaries are becoming more and more powerful….
WWICollins. 2010-20116 World War I C. Militarism (3 rd long-term cause of the War) –1. Militarism is a policy that focuses on the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. –2. Almost every nation competes for the most powerful military.
WWICollins. 2010-20117 World War I D. System of Alliances –1. The Triple Entente (Allies) is made up of FRANCE, RUSSIA, GREAT BRITAIN. –2. The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) is made up of GERMANY, AUSTRIA- HUNGARY, ITALY, together with THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE.
WWICollins. 2010-20118 World War I Hand out: –Events that drew the US into the Great War…. Cut out images and place in project. Homework: Images of 3-4 of the “important” people of WWI (example: Woodrow Wilson) TAKE OUT A PIECE OF NOTEBOOK PAPER….
WWICollins. 2010-20119 World War I—3 Words Neutral……………Neutrality Isolation…………Isolationist, Isolationism Imperialism……….Imperialist, imperialistic
WWICollins. 2010-201110 World War I—3 Words President Wilson and many Americans did not want to take sides in a European war; they wanted to maintain ______________. The Atlantic Ocean between Europe and the American continent gave many Americans the hope that they could remain ______________ and not be drawn into Europe’s problems.
WWICollins. 2010-201111 World War I—3 Words President Wilson saw the role of Americans not as ______________, taking advantage and gaining power over other nations, but rather as peacemakers who would keep the world safe for Democracy. People who believe that a country should keep out of foreign affairs are called _______________.
WWICollins. 2010-201112 World War I—3 Words The US maintained _____________; it did not take sides, for nearly 3 years. The US did not enter the war for ______________ purposes, but because as President Wilson said, “to make the world safe for Democracy.”
WWICollins. 2010-201113 World War I—3 Words American citizens believed that the US could maintain a ______________ position while Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey waged an ______________ war on their European neighbors.
WWICollins. 2010-201114 World War I II. An assassination leads to war. –A. The Balkan Peninsula (an exercise In mapping) 1. The “powder keg of Europe” 2. Europe’s leading powers had interests there.
WWICollins. 2010-201115 World War I a. Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (trade). b. Germany wanted a rail link w/ the Ottomans. c. A-H was accusing Serbia of subverting their power in Bosnia.
WWICollins. 2010-201116 World War I B. Archduke Franz Ferdinand 1. Heir to the Austrian throne 2. assassinated in the Bosnian capitol of Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. C. Alliance system pulls one nation after another into the conflict. 1. A-H declares war on Russia after treaty 2. Germany declares war on Russia to keep treaty with A-H 3. Britain declares war on Germany and A-H.
WWICollins. 2010-201117 World War I Franz Ferdinand shortly before his assassination:
WWICollins. 2010-201121 World War I III. The Fighting Starts A. The Schlieffen Plan (German War Strategy) 1. Germany invades Belgium 2. G. military mobilizes against France. 3. Eventually move against Russia. B. Trench Warfare 1. 1,000s of miles of trenches 2. Completely new way of dealing w/ the enemy. 3. Fighting inconclusive. Battles were fought literally over yards.
WWICollins. 2010-201122 World War I IV. Americans question neutrality A. Divided loyalties 1. Socialists…criticized the war as an imperialist struggle between. Ger. And Eng. 2. Pacifists…believed war was inherently evil. 3. Millions of naturalized Americans—immigrants— felt….. tied to the countries they were from. 4. Many Americans felt close to the British because….. Of the sense of a common ancestry/language. 5. Many did not want their sons to experience…..the horrors of war.
WWICollins. 2010-201123 World War I V. The War Hits Home By 1917, America had mobilized for war against Germany and the Central Powers for 3 reasons a. b. c.
WWICollins. 2010-201124 World War I A. The British Blockade 1. Britain began to make more use of its naval power. a. b. 2. Results: a.
WWICollins. 2010-201125 World War I VI. The US Declares war A. America finally dragged out of its isolationism for 3 reasons 1. Lusitania 2. Germany marches on Belgium 3. ? End page 6 in project
WWICollins. 2010-201127 World War I—A President Speaks “But the right is more precious that peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest to our hearts—for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations, and make the world at last free.”Woodrow Wilson
WWICollins. 2010-201128 World War I—A President Speaks Some questions: What did Wilson mean by the statement: “The right is more precious than peace”? Can you name another period in history when people believed Wilson’s statement? What did Wilson mean by “things which we have always carried nearest to our hearts”?
WWICollins. 2010-201132 World War I & Propaganda Answer the following questions: 1. How would you define the word “propaganda”? 2. Can you think of an example of propaganda that others would recognize”? 3. What do you consider the purpose of propaganda to be? 4. Who do you think MAKES propaganda? 5. Propaganda is………..
WWICollins. 2010-201133 Propaganda P. is the spreading of ideas, information or rumours for the purpose of furthering a cause or goal. In wartime, governments have used propaganda to justify their war aims, encourage enlistment and urge citizens to increase production, recycle used items, and buy victory bonds. Propaganda is also used to vilify the enemy or exaggerate one’s own accomplishments.
WWICollins. 2010-201134 World War I&Propaganda Hand outs: Propaganda Poster How the Huns Hate Then: Prop. Questionnaire X 13 Then: Back to WWI
WWICollins. 2010-201135 World War I Wilson pleads to make the world: “Safe for Democracy” Many actually believed that the US had to join the war to pave the way for future order, peace, and freedom. ++++ America mobilizes –A. The US was not prepared for war. –1. Only 200,000 men in the service when war was declared and few of them had combat experience.
WWICollins. 2010-201136 World War I B. Raising an army –1. Legislation is passed creating the Selective Service Act. –2. 24 million men sign up and 3.5 million are chosen.
WWICollins. 2010-201137 World War I C. Mass production. –In addition to the vast army that had to be raised, the US had to find a way to transport men, food, and equipment over thousands of miles of ocean. –1. Government takes four crucial steps:
WWICollins. 2010-201138 World War I a. Convoy system. b. Shipyard people/workers shielded from the draft. c. Government campaign focusing on the importance of shipyard work. d. Government converted commercial/private ships into Transatlantic vessels capable of carrying supplies for the war.
WWICollins. 2010-201139 World War I VIII. America turns the Tide –A. Convoy system –1. Heavy guard of destroyers escorts merchant ships –B. Fighting in Europe –1. Allied forces are exhaused. America’s true contribution? A freshness and a sense of enthusiasm.
WWICollins. 2010-201140 World War I IX. Fighting “over there” A. New weapons 1. The tank 2. The airplane 3. Machine gun X. The war introduces new hazards A. Corpses everywhere. Lice, diseases, rats, shell-shock, toxic gasses….
WWICollins. 2010-201141 World War I XI. American troops go on the defensive A. American war hero 1. Alvin York 2. Originally wanted “conscientious objector” status but would prove to be one of the bravest of the brave. B. The collapse of Germany 1. Nov. 1918. A-H surrenders to the Allies. 2. 11/11/18: Armistice signed.
WWICollins. 2010-201142 World War I C. The final toll 1. 18 million dead. 2. 338 billion dollars in total spent. “The War had changed the world forever.”
WWICollins. 2010-201143 World War I Part II. I. The war at home Congress gave President Wilson direct control over much of the economy including the power to fix prices and to regulate—even to nationalize—certain war-related industries.
WWICollins. 2010-201144 World War I A. War industries board 1. Board encourages companies to use mass- production methods to increase efficiency. 2. Encourages the standardization of products. B. War economy 1. Wages rose for the most part. 2. A households income, however, was largely undercut by rising food and housing costs. C. Food administration 1. Created to help produce and conserve food.
WWICollins. 2010-201145 World War I II. Selling the war A. War financing 1. The US spent approximately 35.5 billion dollars on the war. B. Committee on public information 1. Massive nationwide propaganda campaign supporting the war effort. 2. Campaign promoted patriotism but also inflamed hatred and violations of the civil liberties of certain ethnic groups ad opponents of the war.
WWICollins. 2010-201146 World War I III. Attacks on civil liberties increase A. Anti-immigrant hysteria 1. Bitter attacks against those of German descent. 2. Orchestras refused to play the music of Beethoven, Mozart, and Handel. …….SEE CARTOON pg.597 …….Sacco and Vanzetti. Students read pages 619-620
WWICollins. 2010-201149 B. Espionage and Sedition Acts. –1. Under these acts, a person could be fined up to 10,000 dollars and sentenced to 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane or abusive about the government or the war effort. 2. Openly targeted Socialists and labor leaders. 3. Newspapers and magazines that opposed the war or criticized any of the Allies lost their mailing privileges.
WWICollins. 2010-201150 World War I IV. The War Encourages Social Change. A. African Americans and the War 1. ….I’ll help you with this…wait for next slide. 2. B. The Great Migration 1. 2. C. Women and the war 1. Flu Epidemic Pg.601 in text
WWICollins. 2010-201151 Supreme Court Schenk v. United States
WWICollins. 2010-201152 World War I and Social Change African Americans and the War: 380,000 African Americans joined the Army. 200,000 went to Europe, but only about a quarter of that saw combat. The rest worked as laborers, building roads, digging trenches, and unloading ships. Even in the face of discrimination, African Americans were willing to fight for freedom.
WWICollins. 2010-201153 World War I and Social Change Some comments on the War: A. Phillip Randolph, an outspoken advocate for African American rights and the publisher of a radical Harlem newspaper, questioned why men of his race should fight in yet another war for a country that would not grant them full citizenship.
WWICollins. 2010-201154 World War I and Social Change W.E.B. Dubois, another African American leader and founder of the NAACP argued that, “…while the war lasts (we should) forget our special grievances and close our ranks shoulder to shoulder with our white fellow citizens and allied nations that are fighting for democracy.”
WWICollins. 2010-201155 World War I and Social Change Between 1916 and 1921, persistent poverty, racism, and lack of opportunity in the south drove half a million African Americans north and west. It was the largest internal movement of a people in our nation’s history. With the outbreak of the WWI, US industry mobilized to produce manufactured goods for the conflict.
WWICollins. 2010-201156 World War I and Social Change This creates a demand for unskilled labor. Recruiters, ads in prominent African American papers, letters back home, and word of mouth propelled African Americans north to industrialized cities like Pittsburgh, Chicago, Detroit, and Indianapolis.
WWICollins. 2010-201157 World War I and Social Change Entire communities pulled up their roots and headed north, seeking a better quality of life, free from lynchings, Jim Crow laws, voting restrictions, and the poverty of the agricultural south.
WWICollins. 2010-201158 World War I Part IV I. Wilson presents his plan…….. See page 604 -A. The 14 points 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Use your own words, please.
WWICollins. 2010-201159 World War I Debating the Versailles Treaty Everyone hoped that the treaty would restore peace in Europe and create stability. Instead, people remained angry. End page 14 in project.
WWICollins. 2010-201160 World War I A. Provisions in the treaty --1. --2. B. The treaty’s weaknesses --1. --2. --3.
WWICollins. 2010-201161 World War I C. Opposition to the treaty --1. --2. D. Debate over the League of Nations --1. E. Wilson refuses to compromise --1. --2.
WWICollins. 2010-201162 World War I Legacy of the War 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.