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M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v12sk Classified - Internal Use Only TEKNOLOGI MINYAK DAN LEMAK.

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Presentation on theme: "M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v12sk Classified - Internal Use Only TEKNOLOGI MINYAK DAN LEMAK."— Presentation transcript:

1 M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v12sk Classified - Internal Use Only TEKNOLOGI MINYAK DAN LEMAK

2 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk The Importance of Fats/Oils a. High content of energy (the greatest possible storage of energy in the smallest possible amount of food substance) b. Allow human to consume fat soluble-vitamins and provide essential fatty acids c. Provide a smooth, creamy consistency to many dishes (good mouth- feel) d. Economic aspect (> 90 mill ton of oils and fats) ….national interest - 60 mill ton of palm fruit - 11 mill ton of olives - > 200 mill of oil seeds

3 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk e. Substantial market for technical fats Oil type and non food usage (%) - Soybean oil0.25 - Palm oil10 - Palm kernel oil10 - Rapeseed oil40 - Coconut oil55 - Castor oil100 - Linseed oil100 - Tung oil100

4 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Type of usage (% of total non food usage) - Fatty acids36 - Animal feed29 - Soap15 - Other13 - Paints3 - Lubricants2 - Polymers2

5 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Comparison of Diesel oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil SunflowerRapeseed Diesel oilCrude oil Methyl esterCrude oilMethyl ester 1. Caloric value (MJ/kg)42-4639.2840.163737.02-37.20 2. Density (g/cm3)0.8350.9250.8800.920.86-0.90 3. Viscosity (cP, 20oC)3.934.74.2268-976-9 4. Flash point (oC)50-77215.5183317-324111-175

6 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Energy balance from renewable sources SourceEnergy balance invested/yieldedEnergy yield net (GJ/ha) Sunflower oil2.843.3 Rapeseed oil2.737.9 Ethanol (sugar beet)2.558.9 Corn1.318.4 Wheat1.15.2 Requirements for fuel esters FFA< 0.2% Mono, diglycerides< 0.1% Glycerol< 0.1% Methanol< 0.2% Water< 0.1% Metals (each)< 5 ppm

7 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Components of fats and oils Fats/Oils : esters of fatty acids with the trihydric alcohol glycerol 1. Glycerol - propane-1,2,3-triol) - Physical data (molecular weight 92.11, melting point 20oC, density 1.2611 g/cm3, viscosity 1 759.6 cP, solubility in water/alcohol infinitely)

8 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Fatty Acid o > 200 are known o Monocarbonic acid, usually derived from aliphatic hydrocarbon o The structure of fatty acid has a great influence on their physical data

9 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Occurrence of Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids (CnH2nO2) nTrivial nameOccurrence in common oils and fats 4 ButyricMilk fats (3 – 5) 6Caproicmilk fat (2-3), coconut oil (<1) 8Caprylicmilk fat (< 2, )

10 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk

11 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk

12 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Fats and oils of plant origin Linseed oil : seed of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum, major constituent linolenic acid, mainly used in the paint and varnish industry Tung Oil (China wood oil) : seed or nut of the tree Aleurites fordii and Aleurites montana, highly unsaturated oil (eleostearic acid), rapid drying properties Sunflower seed oil : major constituent linoleic and oleic acids Corn oil : oleic and linoleic acids Tomato seed oil : by product of tomato paste manufacture, oleic and linoleic acids

13 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Sesame oil : oleic and linoleic acids, high content of saponifiable matter such as sesamine and seasamoline (give distinctive color reaction) Cotton seed oil : high content of linoleic acid Safflower oil : seed of Carthamus tinctorius, linoleic acid, drying oil (intermediate characteristic between soybean and linseed oil) Soybean oil : high content of linoleic acid, the crude oil contains large amount of non glyceride material (phosphatide) Rice bran oil : bran of Oryza sativa, contain large amount of non glyceride material and active lipase, the acidity (during storage) rises at the rate of 1% per hour Kapok oil : seed of Ceiba pentandra, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids

14 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Castor oil : seed of Ricinus communis, high acetyl or hydroxyl value, high specific gravity, high viscosity, high solubility in glacial acetic acid, lower solubility in petroleum solvent……high content of ricinoleic acid Palm oil : palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids Palm kernel oil : lauric and myristic acids Cocoa butter/cacao butter : bean of Theobroma cacao, has a specific odor and flavor, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids Coconut oil : has a specific odor, lauric and myristic acids

15 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Fats of animal origin Hog (pig) fat or lard : bacon (subcutaneous fatty tissue), lard/hog fat (rendered from the internal tissues), palmitic, stearic and oleic acids Tallow : from the fatty tissues of cattle, sheep and goats, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids Sardine oil : from the body of the Caerulea and Ocelata sardinops, palmitic acid Cod liver oil : from the fish Gadus morrhua, high content of vit A and D

16 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Physical Properties Specific gravity/Density - the specific gravity increases along with increase in the degree of unsaturation - the hydrogenation of fat lower heir specific gravity Melting Point - the melting point of a fatty acid increases together with the increase in the chain length of the acids - the higher unsaturation degree of a substance the lower its melting point - the melting point of a triglyceride is related to that of the corresponding fatty acids - the melting point of a diglyceride is higher than that of the corresponding triglyceride

17 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Butyric acid-8 Caproic acid-1 Caprylic acid16 Capric acid31.3 Lauric acid43.4 Myristic acid54.4 Palmitic acid62.9 Stearic acid69.6 Oleic acid16 Elaidic acid44 Erucic acid34 Linoleic acid-7 Linolenic acid-13

18 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Boiling Point -the boiling point of fatty acids increases together with increase in their chain length - the vapour pressure of a glyceride is always considerably lower than that of the corresponding fatty acid Iodine Value : a measure for determining the unsaturation degree of fats and fatty acids, defined as the amount of iodine (in gram) which is absorbed by 100 gram of fat Peroxide Value : a measure for determining the content of reactive oxygen of fats and oils in terms of milliequivalents of oxygen per 1000 gram fats, for evaluating their keeping qualities or shelf life.

19 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Acid Value : a measure used for determining the content of free fatty acids contained in oils/fats; defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the FFA contained in 1 gram of fat; the acidity of fats and oils is expressed in terms of %FFA; acid value : FFA = 1 : 0.503 Saponification Value : the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to saponify 1 gram of fat. Acetyl Value : refers to the determination of the free hydroxyl groups contained in fats and oils; represented by the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the acetic acid produced by splitting of 1 gram of acetylated fat Hydroxyl Value : the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the number of hydroxyls contained in 1 gram of fatty acids.

20 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk MINOR COMPONENTS OF FATS AND OILS Phosphatides glycerophosphatides sphyngolipids Unsaponifiables (the portion of oils and fats which is not saponified; varies 0.5 – 2%) sterols (simply alicyclic alcohols) vitamins-tocopherols (vit A, D, E, K) waxes (the fatty acids present instead of being esterified with glycerol are esterified with a sterol or a aliphatic alcohol C26 – C36) coloring substances aliphatic and terpenic alcohols saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

21 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk PURIFICATION OF FATS AND OILS SUBSTANCES MUST BE REMOVED : 1.Solid impurities (solids or meal fines) The most serious troubles : -Formation of difficult to process sludge in storage tanks -Neutral oil losses during neutralization (fines act as emulsifier) -Slowing down of the processing cycle 2. Mucilagenous materials, phosphatides, peroxides etc -Soy bean1.5 – 3% -Rapeseed1.5 – 2.5% -Maize1 - 2% -Cottonseed0.5 – 1.5% -Sunflower0.5 – 1%

22 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk 3. Volatile impurities (water, solvent, ether etc) 4. Trace metals such as copper and iron (pro-oxidants) 5. Pigments, primary and secondary oxidation products 6. Waxes and unsaponifiables

23 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Degumming with phosphoric acid Acid charred & precipitated (coagulated) proteins, phosphatides, gum Separation : settling & centrifugation Crude oil is heated to 70 – 80 o C, mixed with acid solution (0.3 – 0.4%, 15 – 20 minutes) Sulphuric acid : 66 o Be, temp 30 o C, high temp : partial sulphonation of oil (red color) Acid : phosphoric, oxalic, citric, sulphuric Water degumming (purification by hydration) Phosphatides, proteins & other colloidal impurities soluble in the oil only in anhydrous form…… precipitated in the form of flocs of higher specific gravity

24 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk NEUTRALISATION OF FATS AND OILS Acidity of the oil : expressed as oleic acid (in general as this acid is present in all fats and oils) Source of acidity : fermentative process (special enzymes under condition of temperature split glycerides into glycerol and fatty acid. The glycerol decomposes, the free fatty acids remain dissolved in the oil and cause its acidity to rise. The most effective method to prevent : remove the maximum possible amount of water from the crude oil Acidity : neutral losses (split glyceride, neutral oil loss during neutralisation)

25 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Factors : purity of fats and oils temperatures strength of alkaline solutions saponification time The most serious dangers : unusual losses of neutral oil, formation of emulsions hindering soapstock separation, poor settling of soap flocs

26 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk In continuous operation Q = (Q1 x P x A x 1 000) / (100 x M x N) Q= quantity of NaOH solution (l/h) Q1= quantity of oil (l/h) P= specific weight of oil A= acidity of the oil, expressed in percent M= molecular weight of fatty acid N= strength of NaOH, expressed as normality Excess NaOH : 6% x Q

27 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Average weight of fatty acid Coconut oil205 Palm kernel oil214 Palm oil263 Rapeseed oil308 Wesson loss (W%) = A + I A = % fatty acid I = % impurities

28 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk The limits of neutralisation losses FFA <= 4 % = 0.8 + (1.2 x W%) FFA > 4% = 1.4 x W% Strength of NaOH FFA < 1% : 8 – 12 o Be FFA 1 – 6% : 20 o Be FFA > 6% : > 20 o Be Washing of oils after neutralisation : to remove the traces of soap, by the spraying water at a temperature of 90 – 95 o C

29 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Neutralisation by Saponification the reverse of fat hydrolysis/fat splitting conducted under vacuum, in the presence of an excess of glycerol and at temperature of 250 o C, catalyst zinc or zinc chloride the weakness : occurrence of polymerisation, color change (to red) of the esterified product, deterioration of flavor Neutralisation by Distillation (Physical Refining) through distillation by injected steam to remove free fatty acid this process can’t be applied to all oils : the oils are heated up to 220 – 250 o C, oils undergo certain modification to their molecular structure and consequently their chemical and physical characteristic are modified

30 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Neutralisation Via chemical Means Saponifying the free fatty acids present with aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and seldom with others (potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate) and in separating via physical means (settling and centrifugation) Reaction (reversible ~ temperature and pressure) Reactants: free fatty acid (R-COOH), NaOH Products: soap (R-COONa), H2O The reaction is conducted at atmospheric pressure and medium temperature (60 – 80 o C) Hydrolysis : high pressure (30 atm), high temperature

31 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk BLEACHING remove coloring matters (to be adsorbed by bleaching agent) bleaching agents : bleaching earth, activated carbon Bleaching Earths special clays activated by chemical or physical processes treatments : washing by sulphuric acid solution, filtration, drying, grinding adsorptive effect : surface tension, enhanced by the large surface area. the treatment of the clay is to remove the foreign matters contains in its capillary tubes so as to render it extremely porous and extend its surface. the mineral acid treatment increases the FFA content

32 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk ACTIVATED CARBON animal or plant origin plant origin : dry distillation of special tree branches the bleaching action : the large adsorbent surface of carbon held in small volume, would influence the surface tension of the compound with which it comes into contact, thus causing adsorption 1 g carbon develop a surface area of several square meters common practice : mixture of activated carbon and bleaching earth in a ratio 5 – 10 % of carbon to 90 – 95 % of clay

33 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Before being subjected to bleaching, fats/oils must be free of moisture. The slightest traces of water in a fat may reduce the bleaching action of earths and activated carbon Operation : heating the oil to a temperature range of 70 – 80 o C under vacuum Temperature has a marked influence on the bleaching process every type of oil has its own optimum temperature (need preliminary tests to determine this optimum temperature) soy bean oil : 100 o C

34 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Time contact time has its influence on the decolorizing power of the adsorbent unique for every type of oil case : soybean oil o optimum contact time: 30 minutes o bleaching temperature: 95 o C o amount of bleaching earth: 2% o absolute pressure: 60 mm Hg o agitation: vigorous Continuous process is more effective

35 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Absolute pressure The surface area is made up by a countless number of capillary tubes, which in atmospheric ambient will become saturated with air (The material must be deaerated) The simplest method : lowering the absolute pressure in the bleaching vessel to 50 – 70 mm Hg

36 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Industrial Operation the bleacher is fed with a set amount of oil, temp 70 – 80 o C under vacuum pressure (barometric condenser and vacuum pump) the agitator is operated until the moisture is completely removed after drying, a metered amount of bleaching agent is added and the temperature is raised to 100 – 110oC (contact time : 30 min) The suspension is pumped to the filtration section where the two components are separated

37 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk DEODORISATION to remove the compound which impart an unpleasant odor and flavor the compound (0.001 – 0.010%) : unsaturated carbohydrates, low molecular weight fatty acids (mainly butyric acid and caproic acid, aldehydes and ketones (formed during the various refining process) Great difference in volatility between odoriferous substances and glyceride Deodorisation : based on the higher volatile properties of odoriferous compounds (removed by distillation) Factors : temperature, pressure, time, material of deodoriser

38 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk The boiling point : Absolute pressurePalmitic acidStearic acidOleic acid (mm Hg)( o C)( o C)( o C) 100270290285 40244263255 10210228220 4192209205 2179193190

39 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Optimum condition for operation : highest possible temperature lowest possible absolute pressure controlled amount of stripping steam An excessive increase in temperature may result in distillation of part of the glycerides, polymerisation and partial hydrolysis of the glycerides A prolonged deodorisation time has the following adverse results : polymerisation, cooked flavor of the oil, color deterioration of the refined oil Deodorisation time : batch 5 – 12 hours, continue 1 – 3 hours

40 Internal use only M7180-DS intro 9-8 JLG to Mediasense-v10sk Type of oilPressure (Torr)Temperature ( o C) Soybean10-20200 4-6240 Rapeseed10-20200 4-6240 Coconut10-20180 4-6180 Palm10-20180 4-6230 Palm kernel10-20180 4-6230


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