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Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I During the 1800s, many felt that as nation-states developed, Europeans would work together.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I During the 1800s, many felt that as nation-states developed, Europeans would work together."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I During the 1800s, many felt that as nation-states developed, Europeans would work together and remain peaceful they were wrong!! There was little cooperation, and lots of competition European countries battled over colonies and trade, which created many nationalistic and imperialistic expansions Europe--1872

2 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Europe was divided into two main alliances toward the end of the 1800s: Triple Alliance— Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy Triple Entente—France, Great Britain, and Russia

3 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I A series of crises in the Balkan Peninsula between 1908 and 1913 left powerful European states very angry with each other -they were being guided by their own self-interests -they were looking for revenge, and were willing to use war to preserve their power

4 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Despite the development of nation-states during the 1800s, there were many ethnic groups that did not gain autonomy -this included Slavic minorities found in the Balkans (Ottoman Empire), the Irish in the British Empire, and the Poles in the Russian Empire Socialist labor movements also added internal dissent -these workers would strike, and even violence, to help achieve their goals The European leaders feared revolution, and some have even argued these leaders plunged their countries into war in an effort to suppress internal disorder

5 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I The growth of armies in Europe added to these tensions Conscription—a military draft -became a regular practice in most western European countries after 1900 -people realized because of these large armies that if war ever broke out, it would be very destructive Russia’s army was the largest (1.3 million) The French and German armies each had about 900,000 men

6 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Militarism—the aggressive preparation for war As the armies grew, military leaders gained more influence They developed plans for rapid mobilization of troops As issues escalated in 1914, leaders began to mobilize their armies as other countries mobilized

7 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Three reasons for the start of World War I: 1.Militarism 2.Nationalism 3.The desire to stifle internal dissent Powder Keg that ignited World War I was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

8 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I The Ottoman’s controlled a large empire in 1914, including areas of southeast Europe that include the modern nations of Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, and Greece These peoples had been trying for many years to rid themselves of Ottoman rule When they began to free themselves from the Ottomans, there was a rivalry between Austria- Hungary and Russia to control these new states

9 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I In 1914, Serbia was supported by Russia and tried to create its own large independent state Austria-Hungary had a large Serbian minority did not want an independent Serbia

10 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I June 28, 1914: Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophia visited the Bosnian city of Sarajevo He was assassinated

11 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I The Black Hand—a group of conspirators who wanted Bosnia to free itself from Austria-Hungary and join the new Serbian kingdom Gavrilo Princip—a member of the Black Hand who assassinated the archduke and his wife

12 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Austria-Hungary had no proof that the Serbian government was involved in this assassination, but they saw this as an opportunity to use force against Serbia in retaliation for this event But they feared Russian intervention (the Russians supported the Serbs) Austria-Hungary asked their ally Germany for support Emperor William II of Germany said Austria-Hungary could count on German support, even if it meant war against Russia

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14 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Serbian general inspecting troops at outbreak of World War I This and the following two pictures from: http://www.earthstation1.com/Serbia_WWI.html

15 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Serbian field artillery unit in 1914

16 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Serbian infantry, 1914

17 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Mobilization—the process of assembling troops and supplies, making them ready for war In 1914, mobilization was considered an act of war The Russian mobilization plan was set up for action against both Austria-Hungary and Germany -they could not ‘partially mobilize’ against only one of these nations because it would have created chaos in the Russian military July 29, 1914: Czar Nicholas II orders the mobilization of the Russian army, knowing that Germany would consider this an act of war

18 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Germany orders Russia to stop their mobilization, but they do not stop August 1, 1914: Germany declares war on Russia Schlieffen Plan: Germany’s mobilization plan set up by General Alfred von Schlieffen His plan called for a two-front war with France and Russia

19 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Schlieffen’s plan was that Germany would try to not engage Russia in the east and go into a holding pattern In the west, the Germans would invade France by rapidly moving their troops through the level terrain of Belgium

20 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I

21 Chapter 23—War and Revolution Section1—The Road to World War I Schlieffen’s plan did not allow Germany to only declare war on Russia, so Germany declared war on France on August 3, 1914 The German’s issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding them to allow German troops to pass through Belgian territory Belgium was a neutral nation and refused to give permission German troops forced their way through Belgium nonetheless Great Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914, for violating Belgian neutrality Now, all of the great powers of Europe were at war

22 What do you know? 1. A military draft A. Mobilization B. Militarism C. Germany D. Russia E. Conscription

23 What Do You Know? Aggressive preparation for war A. Mobilization B. Militarism C. Germany D. Russia E. Conscription

24 What Do You Know? Readying troops and supplies for war A. Mobilization B. Militarism C. Germany D. Russia E. Conscription

25 What Do You Know? Ally of Austria-Hungary A. Mobilization B. Militarism C. Germany D. Russia E. Conscription

26 What Do You Know? Protector of Serbia A. Mobilization B. Militarism C. Germany D. Russia E. Conscription

27 What Do You Know? The Triple Alliance was a loose agreement of cooperation among A. Serbia, Britain, and Germany B. Italy, Serbia, and France C. Germany, Italy, and Russia D. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy E. Russia, Britain, and France

28 What Do You Know? Which one of the following is NOT considered a major cause of World War I: A. The growth of nationalism B. Impressionism C. Militarism D. Internal dissent E. The alliance system

29 What Do You Know? Austria-Hungary feared that Serbia would A. Create a large Slavic state B. Kill Archduke Ferdinand C. Invade Russia D. Invade Germany E. Launch a naval attack on Austro-Hungarian port cities

30 What Do You Know? Germany viewed the Russian czar’s full mobilization of the army as A. An act of support for Austria-Hungary B. An act of kindness C. An act of war D. An act of poor judgment E. An act of brutality

31 What Do You Know? The German military plan devised by General von Schlieffen A. Called for war on two fronts B. Relied on carpet-bombing C. Depended upon help from Serbia D. Depended upon French neutrality E. Was also known as propaganda


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