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NEXT An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800 Motivated by Christian faith and a desire for profit, Europeans explore distant lands, while Japanese.

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Presentation on theme: "NEXT An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800 Motivated by Christian faith and a desire for profit, Europeans explore distant lands, while Japanese."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEXT An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800 Motivated by Christian faith and a desire for profit, Europeans explore distant lands, while Japanese and Chinese rulers isolate their societies from Europeans.

2 Pre Unit 4 Journal The following are writing prompts. You need to write 3-5 sentences, but you DO NOT have to answer all or any of the questions. PROMPTS: What do you know about this unit? What do you want to know? How does this affect you?

3 CRASH COURSE HISTORY

4 Chapter 3 Investigation As you watch the video, list out questions you might have about this time period On your own, with a partner, or group of 3, pick the questions you fill are most significant Write these questions on a spreadsheet to research (each group needs 1) Use the internet, edmodo, your book, primary sources, etc to answer the questions Be sure to list our other questions you have as you research

5 Map Creation and Explanation You will be given a country that you are responsible creating a map of during the 15 th and 16 th centuries. Use Ch 3 and Ch 4 of your book along with online source to complete you map. Map must include a color depiction of its location and locations around the world they controlled(if any) Must also identify at least 2 important explorers/rulers –Must draw picture that represents them and explain their importance on back of drawings

6 NEXT Section 1 Europeans Explore the East Advances in sailing technology enable Europeans to explore other parts of the world.

7 NEXT For “God, Glory, and Gold” Europeans Explore the East Early Contact Limited New desire for contact with Asia develops in Europe in early 1400s Europeans Seek New Trade Routes Main reason for exploration is to gain wealth Contact during Crusades spurs demand for Asian goods Muslims and Italians control trade from East to West Other European nations want to bypass these powers SECTION 1 Continued...

8 NEXT The Spread of Christianity Desire to spread Christianity also spurs exploration Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias wants to serve God and king continued For “God, Glory, and Gold” Technology Makes Exploration Possible In 1400s, the caravel makes it possible to sail against wind Astrolabe makes navigation easier Magnetic compass improves tracking of direction SECTION 1

9 NEXT Portugal Leads the Way SECTION 1 The Portuguese Explore Africa Prince Henry, the son of Portugal’s king, supports exploration In 1419, he founds navigation school on coast of Portugal By 1460, Portuguese have trading posts along west coast of Africa Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia In 1488, Dias sails around southern tip of Africa In 1498, Vasco da Gama sails to India In 1499, da Gama returns to Portugal with valuable cargo

10 NEXT Spain Also Makes Claims SECTION 1 A Rival Power In 1492, Christopher Columbus sails for Spain Convinces Spanish to support plan to reach Asia by sailing west Reaches the Americas instead Opens Americas to exploration and colonization In 1493, pope divides these lands between Spain and Portugal Agreement formalized by Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494

11 NEXT Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean SECTION 1 Portugal’s Trading Empire In 1509, Portugal defeats Muslims, takes over Indian Ocean trade In 1510, Portugal captures Goa, port city in western India In 1511, Portugal seizes Malacca, on Malay Peninsula These gains break Muslim-Italian hold on Asian trade Continued...

12 NEXT Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese English and Dutch begin moving into Asia in 17th century Dutch have more ships (20,000) than any other nation in 1600 Dutch and English weaken Portuguese control of Asian trade Dutch then overpower English Form Dutch East India Company for Asian trade continued Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean SECTION 1 Continued...

13 NEXT European Trade Outposts In 1619, Dutch set up trade headquarters at Batavia, on Java Throughout 1600s, Dutch trade grows Amsterdam, Dutch capital, becomes wealthy city Dutch also control southern tip of Africa England’s East India Company gains strength in India France also gains trade foothold in India continued Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean SECTION 1

14 NEXT Advances under the Ming and Qing dynasties leave China uninterested in European contact. Section 2 China Limits European Contacts

15 NEXT China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty China Limits European Contacts A New Dynasty Ming dynasty—rules China from 1368 to 1644 Ming rulers collect tribute from many Asian countries The Rise of the Ming Hongwu—peasant’s son who leads army that forces Mongols from China First Ming emperor, he begins agricultural and government reforms His son, Yonglo, becomes next emperor; moves royal court to Beijing In 1405, he launches first of voyages of exploration SECTION 2 Continued...

16 NEXT The Voyages of Zheng He Chinese admiral Zheng He leads seven long voyages Distributes gifts to show China’s superiority continued China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty Ming Relations with Foreign Countries In 1500s, Chinese government controls all contact with outsiders High demand for Chinese goods helps China’s economy prosper Government policies favor farming over manufacturing and merchants Christian missionaries bring European ideas to China SECTION 2

17 NEXT Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty Another New Dynasty Manchus—people of Manchuria, in northern China Qing dynasty—Manchu rulers who take control of China in 1644 SECTION 2 China Under the Qing Chinese resent rule by non-Chinese, often rebel Manchus later gain acceptance through able rule Kangxi—emperor from 1661 to 1722—reforms government, promotes arts Qian-long—emperor from 1736 to 1795—expands Chinese empire Continued...

18 NEXT Manchus Continue Chinese Isolation Chinese think themselves culturally superior to other peoples Set special rules for foreign traders to follow Dutch accept these rules; British do not and are blocked from trade continued Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty Korea Under the Manchus In 1636, Manchus conquer Korea Korean people gradually develop feelings of nationalism Art reflects rejection of Chinese ways SECTION 2

19 NEXT Life in Ming and Qing China Families and the Role of Women New farming techniques produce more crops, spur population growth Families favor sons over daughters Some women work outside home, but most live restricted lives SECTION 2 Cultural Developments Culture based on traditional forms Dream of the Red Chamber (literary work) reveals Manchu society Plays about China’s history help unify Chinese people

20 Section 3 Japan Returns to Isolation The Tokugawa regime unifies Japan and begins 250 years of isolation, autocracy, and economic growth. NEXT

21 A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders Japan Returns to Isolation Local Lords Rule In 1467, civil war destroys old feudal system in Japan Period from 1467 to 1568 is called time of the “Warring States” Daimyo—warrior-chieftains—are lords in new feudal system Emperor is figurehead with no real power Daimyo build armies of mounted samurai and gun- bearing infantry SECTION 3 Continued...

22 NEXT New Leaders Restore Order Oda Nobunaga—powerful daimyo who seizes capital of Kyoto in 1568 Nobunaga tries to eliminate rival daimyo and Buddhist monasteries In 1582, commits suicide when an ally turns against him General Toyotomi Hideyoshi carries on Nobunaga’s work By 1590, controls most of Japan Launches invasion of Korea, but effort ends when he dies continued A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders SECTION 3 Continued...

23 NEXT Tokugawa Shogunate Unites Japan Tokugawa Ieyasu takes over, completes unification of Japan In 1603, becomes shogun, or sole ruler Sets up capital at Edo, which grows to be Tokyo Uses restrictions to keep daimyo under control Tokugawa Shogunate rules Japan from 1603 to 1867 continued A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders SECTION 3

24 NEXT Life in Tokugawa Japan Society in Tokugawa Japan Long period of peace, prosperity, cultural growth Structured society, with shogun as actual ruler Confucian ideas influence society Peasants suffer from high taxes; many leave farms for cities By mid-1700s, Japan becoming urban society Most women lead sheltered lives SECTION 3 Continued...

25 NEXT Culture Under the Tokugawa Shogunate Traditional culture thrives Tragic noh dramas popular among samurai Townspeople enjoy new type of realistic fiction Many people enjoy haiku—three-line poetry that presents images Kabuki theater—skits with elaborate costumes, music, and dance continued Life in Tokugawa Japan SECTION 3

26 NEXT Contact Between Europe and Japan Portugal Sends Ships, Merchants, and Technology to Japan In 1540s, European traders begin arriving; welcomed by Japanese European firearms change Japanese way of fighting SECTION 3 Christian Missionaries in Japan In 1549, first Christian missionaries arrive By 1600, about 300,000 Japanese are Christians Japan’s rulers upset by this, ban Christianity After 1637 rebellion, Christianity is forbidden in Japan

27 NEXT The Closed Country Policy Growing Tensions First Europeans arrive when Japan has no central authority Shoguns, who later take power, dislike European ideas, ways of life SECTION 3 Japan in Isolation Shoguns limit European trade to port of Nagasaki Only Dutch and Chinese are allowed to trade; shoguns control trade Japanese people are forbidden to travel abroad Japan develops in isolation

28 Chapter 3 Quiz You can use your notes/study guide

29 NEXT The Atlantic World, 1492–1800 Europeans explore and colonize the Americas, disrupting native civilizations, and build the slave trade to support plantations in the New World.

30 NEXT Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire The voyages of Columbus prompt the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas.

31 NEXT The Voyages of Columbus Spain Builds an American Empire First Encounters Genoese sea captain Christopher Columbus reaches Americas (1492) Thinks he is in East Indies, calls natives “los indios”—Indians Actually lands on an island, probably in the Bahamas Unable to find gold, he claims many islands for Spain In 1493, he sets out for the Americas again with a large fleet Spain aims to set up colonies—lands controlled by a foreign nation SECTION 1 Continued...

32 NEXT continued The Voyages of Columbus SECTION 1 Other Explorers Take to the Seas Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal (1500) Amerigo Vespucci identifies South America as new continent (1501) In 1507, German mapmaker names the continent America Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan leaves to sail around the world (1519) Magellan is killed, but some of his men return to Spain in 1522

33 NEXT Spanish Conquests in Mexico SECTION 1 Conquistadors In 1519, Hernando Cortés—Spanish adventurer— lands in Mexico He and others become known as conquistadors— Spanish conquerors Cortés Conquers the Aztecs Cortés and 600 men reach Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán By 1521, they conquer Aztec empire Conquest aided by superior weapons, Native American allies European diseases wipe out large numbers of Aztecs

34 NEXT Spanish Conquests in Peru SECTION 1 Another Conquistador Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro leads force to Peru in 1532 Pizarro Subdues the Inca Pizarro kills Atahualpa—Inca ruler—and defeats the Inca Spain’s Pattern of Conquest Spanish men and Native American women have children Result is large mestizo—mixed Spanish and native— population Encomienda system—Spanish force Native Americans to work for them The Portuguese in Brazil In 1530s, Portuguese settle in Brazil, begin growing sugar

35 NEXT Spain’s Influence Expands SECTION 1 Growth of Spanish Power Conquests in Americas bring great wealth to Spain Spain enlarges its navy to protect ships carrying treasure Conquistadors Push North Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain (1513) In 1540s, Francisco Coronado explores Southwest, finds little gold Catholic priests set up missions in Southwest In early 1600s, Spanish establish capital of Santa Fe

36 NEXT Opposition to Spanish Rule SECTION 1 Protests Against Mistreatment Catholic priests protest mistreatment of Native Americans African Slavery and Native Resistance Spain abolishes encomienda system (1542) Need for workers in mines and on farms met with enslaved Africans Some Native Americans resist Spanish conquerors In 1680, Popé leads rebellion against Spanish in modern New Mexico Spanish driven out, but return 12 years later to stay

37 NEXT Several European nations fight for control of North America, and England emerges victorious. Section 2 European Nations Settle North America

38 NEXT Competing Claims in North America European Nations Settle North America Other European Claims in North America French, English, Dutch start colonies in North America SECTION 2 Explorers Establish New France Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec New France—French colony in North America New France includes Great Lakes and Mississippi River valley A Trading Empire New France is very large but has few inhabitants Main activity of the colony is the fur trade

39 NEXT The English Arrive in North America The First English Colony King James permits investors to start North American colony In 1607, colonists found Jamestown—English settlement in Virginia SECTION 2 The Settlement at Jamestown Early years very difficult; many die, but settlement takes hold Continued... Puritans Create a “New England” Pilgrims—group persecuted for religion—found Plymouth in 1620 Puritans—group seeking religious freedom—settle in Massachusetts Many families in Massachusetts colony, which begins to grow

40 NEXT continued The English Arrive in North America The Dutch Found New Netherland In 1609, Henry Hudson explores waterways for Dutch Dutch claim land, found New Netherland—now Albany and New York City Dutch focus on fur trade; welcome settlers from other lands Colonizing the Caribbean European nations also start colonies in Caribbean Large cotton, sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans SECTION 2

41 NEXT The Struggle for North America The English Oust the Dutch New Netherland splits northern, southern English colonies In 1664, English force Dutch colonists to surrender control By 1750, about 1.2 million English settlers in 13 colonies SECTION 2 England Battles France English settlers, pushing west, collide with French possessions French and Indian War—part of Seven Years’ War—begins (1754) In 1763, France loses to Britain, gives up its American colonies

42 NEXT Native Americans Respond A Strained Relationship French and Dutch fur traders get along well with Native Americans English settlers and Native Americans disagree over land, religion SECTION 2 Settlers and Native Americans Battle Hostility often breaks out into war Native American ruler Metacom launches attacks on colonists in 1675 Natives Fall to Disease Wars are less deadly to Native Americans than European diseases Colonists use enslaved Africans to work in place of Native Americans

43 Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade To meet their growing labor needs, Europeans enslave millions of Africans in the Americas. NEXT

44 The Causes of African Slavery Slavery in Africa Slavery has existed in Africa for centuries, but been minor practice Spread of Islam produces more slavery in Africa In African, Muslim lands, slaves have some rights SECTION 3 The Demand for Africans Need for workers in Americas raises demand for enslaved Africans Africans withstand diseases, have farming skills, unlikely to escape Atlantic slave trade—forced movement of many Africans to Americas The Atlantic Slave Trade Continued...

45 NEXT Spain and Portugal Lead the Way By 1650, about 300,000 enslaved Africans in Spanish colonies Portugal brings many more slaves to sugar plantations in Brazil continued The Causes of African Slavery SECTION 3

46 NEXT Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas England Dominates the Slave Trade From 1690 to 1807, England dominates slave trade About 400,000 enslaved Africans brought to North American colonies African Cooperation and Resistance Many African rulers capture people to be sold into slavery Later, some rulers protest the trade SECTION 3

47 NEXT A Forced Journey The Triangular Trade Triangular trade—trade network linking Europe, Africa, Americas One trade route: -manufactured goods move from Europe to Africa -people move from Africa to Americas -sugar, coffee, tobacco move from Americas to Europe The Middle Passage Voyage of enslaved Africans to Americas known as the middle passage As many as 20 percent of Africans die on these journeys SECTION 3

48 NEXT Slavery in the Americas A Harsh Life In Americas, captured Africans sold at auction to highest bidder Life is difficult: long work hours; poor food, housing, clothing SECTION 3 Resistance and Rebellion Africans maintain musical, cultural traditions Some resist by breaking tools or working slowly Some run away or take part in revolts

49 NEXT Consequences of the Slave Trade Results in Africa and the Americas African societies suffer from loss of so many people African families disrupted In Americas, labor of enslaved people helps build new societies Enslaved Africans affect culture in Americas Population in Americas changes SECTION 3

50 NEXT Section 4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade The colonization of the Americas introduces new items into Eastern and Western hemispheres.

51 NEXT The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade The Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange—global transfer of food, plants, animals Corn, potatoes from Americas become crops in Eastern Hemisphere New animals, plants introduced by Europeans take hold in Americas European diseases kill millions of Native Americans SECTION 4 The Columbian Exhange

52 NEXT Global Trade Changing Economies Wealth from Americas, growth of trade changes business in Europe SECTION 4 The Rise of Capitalism New economic system—capitalism—based on private property, profit Increase in business leads to inflation—rising prices—in Europe Hauls of gold, silver from Americas cause high inflation in Spain Joint-Stock Companies Joint-stock company lets investors share risk, profits of business These companies help fund colonies in America

53 NEXT New Economic Policy Policy of mercantilism emphasizes national wealth as source of power The Growth of Mercantilism SECTION 4 Balance of Trade One way for nation to increase wealth: gather gold, silver Favorable balance of trade when nation sells more goods than it buys Colonies provide raw materials that home country uses to make goods Continued...

54 NEXT Economic Revolution Changes European Society Economic changes spur growth of towns, rise of merchant class Still, most people are poor and live in rural areas SECTION 4 continued The Growth of Mercantilism

55 NEXT Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 Several countries in Europe come under the control of absolute monarchs, and Parliament challenges the monarch's authority in Great Britain.

56 Chapter 4 Quiz You can use your notes/study guide

57 NEXT Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism The Reign of Louis XIV Central European Monarchs Clash Absolute Rulers of Russia SECTION 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

58 Chapter 5 Assignment Can do assignment on own or with partner only Section 1- Answer map question on page 156, Chart question on page 160, and the Main Idea questions on page 157 and 160 Section 2- Write 5-7 that summarize how Louis XIV ruined the wealth of France. Give specific examples Section 3- Complete chart of page 173 question 3 Section 4- Complete chart of page 177 question 2

59 Chapter 5 Section 5 Assignment You will be given 1 of the 5 men who ruled during this time period (James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, James II). You and your group are required to create a song/poem that describes their time in power You then must construct a 1 ½- 2 page (front and back=2) paper that explains Ch 5 Section 5. You must include all men listed above and include important terms, such as, commonwealth, restoration, and glorious revolution

60 NEXT Section 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism During a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II rules Spain with a strong hand.

61 NEXT A Powerful Spanish Empire Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism A New Spanish Ruler In 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and its possessions SECTION 1 Philip II’s Empire Philip seizes Portugal in 1580 Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy Defender of Catholicism Philip defends Catholicism against Muslims, Protestants Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571 Spanish Armada defeated by British in 1588

62 NEXT Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature SECTION 1 El Greco and Velázquez El Greco uses unusual style to convey religious themes Works of Velázquez show Spanish court life Don Quixote In 1605, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes is published Novel marks birth of modern European novel

63 NEXT The Spanish Empire Weakens SECTION 1 Inflation and Taxes Inflation weakens Spain’s economy Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle class Making Spain’s Enemies Rich Spaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain’s enemies rich Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy The Dutch Revolt Protestants in Netherlands win independence from Spain in 1579

64 NEXT The Independent Dutch Prosper SECTION 1 A Different Society Netherlands is a republic and practices religious toleration Dutch Art In 1600s, Netherlands becomes center of European art Rembrandt and Vermeer are famous Dutch painters Dutch Trading Empire Dutch merchants engage in world trade Dutch have world’s largest trading fleet Dutch replace Italians as Europe’s bankers

65 NEXT Absolutism in Europe SECTION 1 The Theory of Absolutism Rulers want to be absolute monarchs—rulers with complete power Believe in divine right—idea that monarchs represent God on earth Growing Power of Europe’s Monarchs Decline of feudalism, rise of cities help monarchs gain power Decline in Church authority also increases power Crises Lead to Absolutism The 17th century is period of great upheaval Monarchs impose order by increasing their own power

66 NEXT After a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time. Section 2 The Reign of Louis XIV

67 NEXT Religious Wars and Power Struggles The Reign of Louis XIV Henry of Navarre Henry ascends to French throne in 1589 and adopts Catholicism Issues Edict of Nantes—a declaration of religious toleration SECTION 2 Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Cardinal Richelieu—Louis XIII’s minister who rules France Increases power of the Bourbons by limiting Huguenots’ freedom Also weakens power of the nobility

68 NEXT Writers Turn Toward Skepticism A New Attitude Skepticism—the idea that nothing can be known for certain SECTION 2 Montaigne and Descartes Montaigne explores ideas about life’s meaning in essays Descartes uses observation and reason to create new philosophy

69 NEXT Louis XIV Comes to Power A New French Ruler Louis XIV—the most powerful ruler in French history SECTION 2 Louis, the Boy King Hatred of Mazarin—young Louis’s minister—leads to riots Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority Louis takes control in 1661 Appoints intendants—government agents—to collect taxes Economic Growth Jean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps economy grow In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France

70 NEXT The Sun King’s Grand Style A Life of Luxury Louis lives very well, with every meal a feast SECTION 2 Louis Controls the Nobility Louis keeps nobles at palace to increase his power over them Builds magnificent palace at Versailles Patronage of the Arts Versailles is a center of arts during reign of Louis XIV Purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis

71 NEXT Attempts to Expand France’s Boundaries Louis fights wars in 1660s, 1670s to expand France In 1680s, many countries unite against him in League of Augsburg France is weakened by poor harvests, warfare, high taxes SECTION 2 War of the Spanish Succession War of the Spanish Succession begins in 1701 Attempts to prevent union of the French and Spanish thrones Ends in 1714; France and Spain lose some possessions Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Continued...

72 NEXT Louis’s Death and Legacy Louis dies leaving mixed legacy Rule makes France a major military and cultural power in Europe His wars and palace leave France with heavy debts SECTION 2 continued Louis Fights Disastrous Wars

73 Section 3 Central European Monarchs Clash After a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs rule Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia. NEXT

74 The Thirty Years’ War Rising Tension Tension rises between Lutherans and Catholics in central Europe SECTION 3 Bohemian Protestants Revolt In 1618, Protestants revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers Result is Thirty Years’ War—conflict over religion, land, power Central European Monarchs Clash Continued... Hapsburg Triumphs From 1618 to 1630, Hapsburg armies have many victories Troops plunder many German villages

75 NEXT Hapsburg Defeats In 1630, tide turns in favor of Protestants Peace of Westphalia War ruins German economy, greatly decreases population Peace of Westphalia (1648) ends war Treaty weakens Hapsburgs, strengthens France Treaty introduces idea of negotiating terms of peace SECTION 3 Beginning of Modern States Treaty recognizes Europe as group of independent states continued The Thirty Years’ War

76 NEXT States Form in Central Europe Economic Contrasts with the West Economy in central Europe still based on serfs, agriculture Several Weak Empires Landowning nobles in central Europe block growth of kings’ power Ottoman and Holy Roman empires are also weak SECTION 3 Austria Grows Stronger Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large empire Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne Maria Theresa becomes empress of Austria, faces years of war

77 NEXT Prussia Challenges Austria The Rise of Prussia Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army Call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyalty SECTION 3 Frederick the Great Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws Continued...

78 NEXT War of the Austrian Succession In 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia Maria Theresa resists Prussian power but loses Silesia in treaty As result of war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe SECTION 3 The Seven Years’ War Austria allies with France against Britain and Prussia In 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony, launching Seven Years’ War France loses colonies in North America; Britain gains India continued Prussia Challenges Austria

79 NEXT Section 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia Peter the Great makes many changes in Russia to try to make it more like Western Europe.

80 NEXT Absolute Rulers of Russia Ivan the Terrible In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning “Caesar” SECTION 4 The First Czar Rule by Terror In 1560, Ivan turns against boyars, kills them, seizes lands Rise of the Romanovs Ivan’s heir is weak, leading to period of turmoil In 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar

81 NEXT Peter the Great Comes to Power The Rise of Peter Peter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform Russia SECTION 4 Russia Contrasts with Europe Land of boyars and serfs Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Religious differences widen gap Peter Visits the West In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways

82 NEXT Peter’s Goal Goal of westernization—using western Europe as model for change Peter Rules Absolutely SECTION 4 Peter’s Reforms Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of great landowners Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers Continued...

83 NEXT Westernizing Russia Introduces potatoes Starts Russia’s first newspaper Raises women’s status Adopts Western fashion Advances education SECTION 4 Continued... continued Peter Rules Absolutely

84 NEXT Establishing St. Petersburg Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea In 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg Building city takes many years; many serfs die in process By the time of Peter’s death, Russia is a power to be reckoned with in Europe SECTION 4 continued Peter Rules Absolutely

85 NEXT Section 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Absolute rulers in England are overthrown, and Parliament gains power.

86 NEXT Parliament Limits the English Monarchy James’s Problems James I of Scotland becomes king of England in 1603 Struggles with Parliament over money, Church reform Monarchs Defy Parliament Charles I Fights Parliament James’s son, Charles I, becomes king in 1625 Also fights with Parliament over money Parliament forces him to sign Petition of Right in 1628 Petition limits Charles’s power, but he ignores it SECTION 5

87 NEXT English Civil War War Topples a King In 1641, Parliament passes laws to limit king’s power Result is English Civil War (1642–1649) between Puritans, king In 1644, Oliver Cromwell becomes general on Puritan side After Puritans win, Charles faces trial and execution in 1649 SECTION 5 Continued...

88 NEXT Cromwell’s Rule In 1649, Cromwell abolishes monarchy, House of Lords Becomes military dictator Suppresses rebellion in Ireland Puritan Morality Puritans abolish activities they find sinful SECTION 5 continued English Civil War

89 NEXT Restoration and Revolution Cromwell’s End After Cromwell dies in 1658, government collapses Next year, Parliament asks son of Charles I to rule Charles II Reigns Restoration—return of monarchy under Charles II Habeas corpus—law requiring king to charge prisoner with crime James II and the Glorious Revolution Charles’s Catholic brother James becomes king in 1685 Glorious Revolution—bloodless overthrow of James in 1688 SECTION 5

90 NEXT Limits on Monarch’s Power A New Type of Monarchy Protestants William and Mary become rulers of England Agree to constitutional monarchy—legal limits on royal power Bill of Rights In 1689, Parliament drafts Bill of Rights Sets limits on royal power Cabinet System Develops In 1700s, cabinet, a group of government ministers, develops Ministers link majority party in Parliament with monarch SECTION 5

91 Chapter 5 Quiz You can use your notes/study guide

92 Post Unit 3 Journal The following are writing prompts. You need to write 3-5 sentences, but you DO NOT have to answer all or any of the questions. PROMPTS: What did you learn this unit? What did you enjoy the most that we did? What do you want to know more about? What do you think will happen next in the world?


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