Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800
Motivated by Christian faith and a desire for profit, Europeans explore distant lands, while Japanese and Chinese rulers isolate their societies from Europeans. NEXT

2 Pre Unit 4 Journal The following are writing prompts. You need to write 3-5 sentences, but you DO NOT have to answer all or any of the questions. PROMPTS: What do you know about this unit? What do you want to know? How does this affect you?


4 Chapter 3 Investigation
As you watch the video, list out questions you might have about this time period On your own, with a partner, or group of 3, pick the questions you fill are most significant Write these questions on a spreadsheet to research (each group needs 1) Use the internet, edmodo, your book, primary sources, etc to answer the questions Be sure to list our other questions you have as you research

5 Map Creation and Explanation
You will be given a country that you are responsible creating a map of during the 15th and 16th centuries. Use Ch 3 and Ch 4 of your book along with online source to complete you map. Map must include a color depiction of its location and locations around the world they controlled(if any) Must also identify at least 2 important explorers/rulers Must draw picture that represents them and explain their importance on back of drawings

6 Europeans Explore the East
Section 1 Europeans Explore the East Advances in sailing technology enable Europeans to explore other parts of the world. NEXT

7 Europeans Explore the East
SECTION 1 Europeans Explore the East For “God, Glory, and Gold” Early Contact Limited • New desire for contact with Asia develops in Europe in early 1400s Europeans Seek New Trade Routes • Main reason for exploration is to gain wealth • Contact during Crusades spurs demand for Asian goods • Muslims and Italians control trade from East to West • Other European nations want to bypass these powers Continued . . . NEXT

8 The Spread of Christianity
SECTION 1 continued For “God, Glory, and Gold” The Spread of Christianity • Desire to spread Christianity also spurs exploration • Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias wants to serve God and king Technology Makes Exploration Possible • In 1400s, the caravel makes it possible to sail against wind • Astrolabe makes navigation easier • Magnetic compass improves tracking of direction NEXT

9 Portugal Leads the Way The Portuguese Explore Africa
SECTION 1 Portugal Leads the Way The Portuguese Explore Africa • Prince Henry, the son of Portugal’s king, supports exploration • In 1419, he founds navigation school on coast of Portugal • By 1460, Portuguese have trading posts along west coast of Africa Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia • In 1488, Dias sails around southern tip of Africa • In 1498, Vasco da Gama sails to India • In 1499, da Gama returns to Portugal with valuable cargo NEXT

10 Spain Also Makes Claims
SECTION 1 Spain Also Makes Claims A Rival Power • In 1492, Christopher Columbus sails for Spain • Convinces Spanish to support plan to reach Asia by sailing west • Reaches the Americas instead • Opens Americas to exploration and colonization • In 1493, pope divides these lands between Spain and Portugal • Agreement formalized by Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 NEXT

11 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean
SECTION 1 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean Portugal’s Trading Empire • In 1509, Portugal defeats Muslims, takes over Indian Ocean trade • In 1510, Portugal captures Goa, port city in western India • In 1511, Portugal seizes Malacca, on Malay Peninsula • These gains break Muslim-Italian hold on Asian trade Continued . . . NEXT

12 Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese
SECTION 1 continued Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese • English and Dutch begin moving into Asia in 17th century • Dutch have more ships (20,000) than any other nation in 1600 • Dutch and English weaken Portuguese control of Asian trade • Dutch then overpower English • Form Dutch East India Company for Asian trade Continued . . . NEXT

13 European Trade Outposts
SECTION 1 continued Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean European Trade Outposts • In 1619, Dutch set up trade headquarters at Batavia, on Java • Throughout 1600s, Dutch trade grows • Amsterdam, Dutch capital, becomes wealthy city • Dutch also control southern tip of Africa • England’s East India Company gains strength in India • France also gains trade foothold in India NEXT

14 China Limits European Contacts
Section 2 China Limits European Contacts Advances under the Ming and Qing dynasties leave China uninterested in European contact. NEXT

15 China Limits European Contacts
SECTION 2 China Limits European Contacts China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty A New Dynasty • Ming dynasty—rules China from 1368 to 1644 • Ming rulers collect tribute from many Asian countries The Rise of the Ming • Hongwu—peasant’s son who leads army that forces Mongols from China • First Ming emperor, he begins agricultural and government reforms • His son, Yonglo, becomes next emperor; moves royal court to Beijing • In 1405, he launches first of voyages of exploration Continued . . . NEXT

16 Ming Relations with Foreign Countries
SECTION 2 continued China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty The Voyages of Zheng He • Chinese admiral Zheng He leads seven long voyages • Distributes gifts to show China’s superiority Ming Relations with Foreign Countries • In 1500s, Chinese government controls all contact with outsiders • High demand for Chinese goods helps China’s economy prosper • Government policies favor farming over manufacturing and merchants • Christian missionaries bring European ideas to China NEXT

17 Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty
SECTION 2 Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty Another New Dynasty • Manchus—people of Manchuria, in northern China • Qing dynasty—Manchu rulers who take control of China in 1644 China Under the Qing • Chinese resent rule by non-Chinese, often rebel • Manchus later gain acceptance through able rule • Kangxi—emperor from 1661 to 1722—reforms government, promotes arts • Qian-long—emperor from 1736 to 1795—expands Chinese empire Continued . . . NEXT

18 Manchus Continue Chinese Isolation
SECTION 2 continued Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty Manchus Continue Chinese Isolation • Chinese think themselves culturally superior to other peoples • Set special rules for foreign traders to follow • Dutch accept these rules; British do not and are blocked from trade Korea Under the Manchus • In 1636, Manchus conquer Korea • Korean people gradually develop feelings of nationalism • Art reflects rejection of Chinese ways NEXT

19 Life in Ming and Qing China
SECTION 2 Life in Ming and Qing China Families and the Role of Women • New farming techniques produce more crops, spur population growth • Families favor sons over daughters • Some women work outside home, but most live restricted lives Cultural Developments • Culture based on traditional forms • Dream of the Red Chamber (literary work) reveals Manchu society • Plays about China’s history help unify Chinese people NEXT

20 Japan Returns to Isolation
Section 3 Japan Returns to Isolation The Tokugawa regime unifies Japan and begins 250 years of isolation, autocracy, and economic growth. NEXT

21 Japan Returns to Isolation
SECTION 3 Japan Returns to Isolation A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders Local Lords Rule • In 1467, civil war destroys old feudal system in Japan • Period from 1467 to 1568 is called time of the “Warring States” • Daimyo—warrior-chieftains—are lords in new feudal system • Emperor is figurehead with no real power • Daimyo build armies of mounted samurai and gun- bearing infantry Continued . . . NEXT

22 New Leaders Restore Order
SECTION 3 continued A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders New Leaders Restore Order • Oda Nobunaga—powerful daimyo who seizes capital of Kyoto in 1568 • Nobunaga tries to eliminate rival daimyo and Buddhist monasteries • In 1582, commits suicide when an ally turns against him • General Toyotomi Hideyoshi carries on Nobunaga’s work • By 1590, controls most of Japan • Launches invasion of Korea, but effort ends when he dies Continued . . . NEXT

23 Tokugawa Shogunate Unites Japan
SECTION 3 continued A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders Tokugawa Shogunate Unites Japan • Tokugawa Ieyasu takes over, completes unification of Japan • In 1603, becomes shogun, or sole ruler • Sets up capital at Edo, which grows to be Tokyo • Uses restrictions to keep daimyo under control • Tokugawa Shogunate rules Japan from 1603 to 1867 NEXT

24 Life in Tokugawa Japan Society in Tokugawa Japan
SECTION 3 Life in Tokugawa Japan Society in Tokugawa Japan • Long period of peace, prosperity, cultural growth • Structured society, with shogun as actual ruler • Confucian ideas influence society • Peasants suffer from high taxes; many leave farms for cities • By mid-1700s, Japan becoming urban society • Most women lead sheltered lives Continued . . . NEXT

25 Culture Under the Tokugawa Shogunate
SECTION 3 continued Life in Tokugawa Japan Culture Under the Tokugawa Shogunate • Traditional culture thrives • Tragic noh dramas popular among samurai • Townspeople enjoy new type of realistic fiction • Many people enjoy haiku—three-line poetry that presents images • Kabuki theater—skits with elaborate costumes, music, and dance NEXT

26 Contact Between Europe and Japan
SECTION 3 Contact Between Europe and Japan Portugal Sends Ships, Merchants, and Technology to Japan • In 1540s, European traders begin arriving; welcomed by Japanese • European firearms change Japanese way of fighting Christian Missionaries in Japan • In 1549, first Christian missionaries arrive • By 1600, about 300,000 Japanese are Christians • Japan’s rulers upset by this, ban Christianity • After 1637 rebellion, Christianity is forbidden in Japan NEXT

27 The Closed Country Policy
SECTION 3 The Closed Country Policy Growing Tensions • First Europeans arrive when Japan has no central authority • Shoguns, who later take power, dislike European ideas, ways of life Japan in Isolation • Shoguns limit European trade to port of Nagasaki • Only Dutch and Chinese are allowed to trade; shoguns control trade • Japanese people are forbidden to travel abroad • Japan develops in isolation NEXT

28 Chapter 3 Quiz You can use your notes/study guide

29 The Atlantic World, 1492–1800 Europeans explore and colonize the Americas, disrupting native civilizations, and build the slave trade to support plantations in the New World. NEXT

30 Spain Builds an American Empire
Section 1 Spain Builds an American Empire The voyages of Columbus prompt the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas. NEXT

31 Spain Builds an American Empire
SECTION 1 Spain Builds an American Empire The Voyages of Columbus First Encounters • Genoese sea captain Christopher Columbus reaches Americas (1492) • Thinks he is in East Indies, calls natives “los indios”—Indians • Actually lands on an island, probably in the Bahamas • Unable to find gold, he claims many islands for Spain • In 1493, he sets out for the Americas again with a large fleet • Spain aims to set up colonies—lands controlled by a foreign nation Continued . . . NEXT

32 Other Explorers Take to the Seas
SECTION 1 continued The Voyages of Columbus Other Explorers Take to the Seas • Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal (1500) • Amerigo Vespucci identifies South America as new continent (1501) • In 1507, German mapmaker names the continent America • Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean • Ferdinand Magellan leaves to sail around the world (1519) • Magellan is killed, but some of his men return to Spain in 1522 NEXT

33 Spanish Conquests in Mexico
SECTION 1 Spanish Conquests in Mexico Conquistadors • In 1519, Hernando Cortés—Spanish adventurer— lands in Mexico • He and others become known as conquistadors— Spanish conquerors Cortés Conquers the Aztecs • Cortés and 600 men reach Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán • By 1521, they conquer Aztec empire • Conquest aided by superior weapons, Native American allies • European diseases wipe out large numbers of Aztecs NEXT

34 Spanish Conquests in Peru
SECTION 1 Spanish Conquests in Peru Another Conquistador • Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro leads force to Peru in 1532 Pizarro Subdues the Inca • Pizarro kills Atahualpa—Inca ruler—and defeats the Inca Spain’s Pattern of Conquest • Spanish men and Native American women have children • Result is large mestizo—mixed Spanish and native— population • Encomienda system—Spanish force Native Americans to work for them The Portuguese in Brazil In 1530s, Portuguese settle in Brazil, begin growing sugar NEXT

35 Spain’s Influence Expands
SECTION 1 Spain’s Influence Expands Growth of Spanish Power • Conquests in Americas bring great wealth to Spain • Spain enlarges its navy to protect ships carrying treasure Conquistadors Push North • Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain (1513) • In 1540s, Francisco Coronado explores Southwest, finds little gold • Catholic priests set up missions in Southwest • In early 1600s, Spanish establish capital of Santa Fe NEXT

36 Opposition to Spanish Rule
SECTION 1 Opposition to Spanish Rule Protests Against Mistreatment • Catholic priests protest mistreatment of Native Americans African Slavery and Native Resistance • Spain abolishes encomienda system (1542) • Need for workers in mines and on farms met with enslaved Africans • Some Native Americans resist Spanish conquerors • In 1680, Popé leads rebellion against Spanish in modern New Mexico • Spanish driven out, but return 12 years later to stay NEXT

37 European Nations Settle North America
Section 2 European Nations Settle North America Several European nations fight for control of North America, and England emerges victorious. NEXT

38 European Nations Settle North America
SECTION 2 European Nations Settle North America Competing Claims in North America Other European Claims in North America • French, English, Dutch start colonies in North America Explorers Establish New France • Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec • New France—French colony in North America • New France includes Great Lakes and Mississippi River valley A Trading Empire • New France is very large but has few inhabitants • Main activity of the colony is the fur trade NEXT

39 The English Arrive in North America
SECTION 2 The English Arrive in North America The First English Colony • King James permits investors to start North American colony • In 1607, colonists found Jamestown—English settlement in Virginia The Settlement at Jamestown • Early years very difficult; many die, but settlement takes hold Puritans Create a “New England” • Pilgrims—group persecuted for religion—found Plymouth in 1620 • Puritans—group seeking religious freedom—settle in Massachusetts • Many families in Massachusetts colony, which begins to grow Continued . . . NEXT

40 The Dutch Found New Netherland
SECTION 2 continued The English Arrive in North America The Dutch Found New Netherland • In 1609, Henry Hudson explores waterways for Dutch • Dutch claim land, found New Netherland—now Albany and New York City • Dutch focus on fur trade; welcome settlers from other lands Colonizing the Caribbean • European nations also start colonies in Caribbean • Large cotton, sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans NEXT

41 The Struggle for North America
SECTION 2 The Struggle for North America The English Oust the Dutch • New Netherland splits northern, southern English colonies • In 1664, English force Dutch colonists to surrender control • By 1750, about 1.2 million English settlers in 13 England Battles France • English settlers, pushing west, collide with French possessions • French and Indian War—part of Seven Years’ War—begins (1754) • In 1763, France loses to Britain, gives up its American colonies NEXT

42 Native Americans Respond
SECTION 2 Native Americans Respond A Strained Relationship • French and Dutch fur traders get along well with Native Americans • English settlers and Native Americans disagree over land, religion Settlers and Native Americans Battle • Hostility often breaks out into war • Native American ruler Metacom launches attacks on colonists in 1675 Natives Fall to Disease • Wars are less deadly to Native Americans than European diseases • Colonists use enslaved Africans to work in place of Native Americans NEXT

43 The Atlantic Slave Trade
Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade To meet their growing labor needs, Europeans enslave millions of Africans in the Americas. NEXT

44 The Atlantic Slave Trade
SECTION 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade The Causes of African Slavery Slavery in Africa • Slavery has existed in Africa for centuries, but been minor practice • Spread of Islam produces more slavery in Africa • In African, Muslim lands, slaves have some rights The Demand for Africans • Need for workers in Americas raises demand for enslaved Africans • Africans withstand diseases, have farming skills, unlikely to escape • Atlantic slave trade—forced movement of many Africans to Americas Continued . . . NEXT

45 Spain and Portugal Lead the Way
SECTION 3 continued The Causes of African Slavery Spain and Portugal Lead the Way • By 1650, about 300,000 enslaved Africans in Spanish colonies • Portugal brings many more slaves to sugar plantations in Brazil NEXT

46 Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas
SECTION 3 Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas England Dominates the Slave Trade • From 1690 to 1807, England dominates slave trade • About 400,000 enslaved Africans brought to North American colonies African Cooperation and Resistance • Many African rulers capture people to be sold into slavery • Later, some rulers protest the trade NEXT

47 A Forced Journey The Triangular Trade The Middle Passage
SECTION 3 A Forced Journey The Triangular Trade • Triangular trade—trade network linking Europe, Africa, Americas • One trade route: - manufactured goods move from Europe to Africa - people move from Africa to Americas - sugar, coffee, tobacco move from Americas to Europe The Middle Passage • Voyage of enslaved Africans to Americas known as the middle passage • As many as 20 percent of Africans die on these journeys NEXT

48 Slavery in the Americas
SECTION 3 Slavery in the Americas A Harsh Life • In Americas, captured Africans sold at auction to highest bidder • Life is difficult: long work hours; poor food, housing, clothing Resistance and Rebellion • Africans maintain musical, cultural traditions • Some resist by breaking tools or working slowly • Some run away or take part in revolts NEXT

49 Consequences of the Slave Trade
SECTION 3 Consequences of the Slave Trade Results in Africa and the Americas • African societies suffer from loss of so many people • African families disrupted • In Americas, labor of enslaved people helps build new societies • Enslaved Africans affect culture in Americas • Population in Americas changes NEXT

50 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade
Section 4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade The colonization of the Americas introduces new items into Eastern and Western hemispheres. NEXT

51 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade
SECTION 4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade The Columbian Exhange The Columbian Exchange • Columbian Exchange—global transfer of food, plants, animals • Corn, potatoes from Americas become crops in Eastern Hemisphere • New animals, plants introduced by Europeans take hold in Americas • European diseases kill millions of Native Americans NEXT

52 Global Trade Changing Economies The Rise of Capitalism
SECTION 4 Global Trade Changing Economies • Wealth from Americas, growth of trade changes business in Europe The Rise of Capitalism • New economic system—capitalism—based on private property, profit • Increase in business leads to inflation—rising prices—in Europe • Hauls of gold, silver from Americas cause high inflation in Spain Joint-Stock Companies • Joint-stock company lets investors share risk, profits of business • These companies help fund colonies in America NEXT

53 The Growth of Mercantilism
SECTION 4 The Growth of Mercantilism New Economic Policy • Policy of mercantilism emphasizes national wealth as source of power Balance of Trade • One way for nation to increase wealth: gather gold, silver • Favorable balance of trade when nation sells more goods than it buys • Colonies provide raw materials that home country uses to make goods Continued . . . NEXT

54 Economic Revolution Changes European Society
SECTION 4 continued The Growth of Mercantilism Economic Revolution Changes European Society • Economic changes spur growth of towns, rise of merchant class • Still, most people are poor and live in rural areas NEXT

55 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800
Several countries in Europe come under the control of absolute monarchs, and Parliament challenges the monarch's authority in Great Britain. NEXT

56 Chapter 4 Quiz You can use your notes/study guide

57 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800
SECTION 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism SECTION 2 The Reign of Louis XIV SECTION 3 Central European Monarchs Clash SECTION 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia These are my notes for slide 2 SECTION 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy NEXT

58 Chapter 5 Assignment Can do assignment on own or with partner only
Section 1- Answer map question on page 156, Chart question on page 160, and the Main Idea questions on page 157 and 160 Section 2- Write 5-7 that summarize how Louis XIV ruined the wealth of France. Give specific examples Section 3- Complete chart of page 173 question 3 Section 4- Complete chart of page 177 question 2

59 Chapter 5 Section 5 Assignment
You will be given 1 of the 5 men who ruled during this time period (James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, James II). You and your group are required to create a song/poem that describes their time in power You then must construct a 1 ½- 2 page (front and back=2) paper that explains Ch 5 Section 5. You must include all men listed above and include important terms, such as, commonwealth, restoration, and glorious revolution

60 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
Section 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism During a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II rules Spain with a strong hand. NEXT

61 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
SECTION 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism A Powerful Spanish Empire A New Spanish Ruler • In 1556, Philip II begins ruling Spain and its possessions Philip II’s Empire • Philip seizes Portugal in 1580 • Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy Defender of Catholicism • Philip defends Catholicism against Muslims, Protestants • Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571 • Spanish Armada defeated by British in 1588 NEXT

62 Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature
SECTION 1 Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature El Greco and Velázquez • El Greco uses unusual style to convey religious themes • Works of Velázquez show Spanish court life Don Quixote • In 1605, Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes is published • Novel marks birth of modern European novel NEXT

63 The Spanish Empire Weakens
SECTION 1 The Spanish Empire Weakens Inflation and Taxes • Inflation weakens Spain’s economy • Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle class Making Spain’s Enemies Rich • Spaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain’s enemies rich • Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy The Dutch Revolt • Protestants in Netherlands win independence from Spain in 1579 NEXT

64 The Independent Dutch Prosper
SECTION 1 The Independent Dutch Prosper A Different Society • Netherlands is a republic and practices religious toleration Dutch Art • In 1600s, Netherlands becomes center of European art • Rembrandt and Vermeer are famous Dutch painters Dutch Trading Empire • Dutch merchants engage in world trade • Dutch have world’s largest trading fleet • Dutch replace Italians as Europe’s bankers NEXT

65 Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism
SECTION 1 Absolutism in Europe The Theory of Absolutism • Rulers want to be absolute monarchs—rulers with complete power • Believe in divine right—idea that monarchs represent God on earth Growing Power of Europe’s Monarchs • Decline of feudalism, rise of cities help monarchs gain power • Decline in Church authority also increases power Crises Lead to Absolutism • The 17th century is period of great upheaval • Monarchs impose order by increasing their own power NEXT

66 The Reign of Louis XIV Section 2
After a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time. NEXT

67 The Reign of Louis XIV Religious Wars and Power Struggles
SECTION 2 The Reign of Louis XIV Religious Wars and Power Struggles Henry of Navarre • Henry ascends to French throne in 1589 and adopts Catholicism • Issues Edict of Nantes—a declaration of religious toleration Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu • Cardinal Richelieu—Louis XIII’s minister who rules France • Increases power of the Bourbons by limiting Huguenots’ freedom • Also weakens power of the nobility NEXT

68 Writers Turn Toward Skepticism
SECTION 2 Writers Turn Toward Skepticism A New Attitude • Skepticism—the idea that nothing can be known for certain Montaigne and Descartes • Montaigne explores ideas about life’s meaning in essays • Descartes uses observation and reason to create new philosophy NEXT

69 Louis XIV Comes to Power
SECTION 2 Louis XIV Comes to Power A New French Ruler • Louis XIV—the most powerful ruler in French history Louis, the Boy King • Hatred of Mazarin—young Louis’s minister—leads to riots Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority • Louis takes control in 1661 • Appoints intendants—government agents—to collect taxes Economic Growth • Jean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps economy grow • In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France NEXT

70 The Sun King’s Grand Style
SECTION 2 The Sun King’s Grand Style A Life of Luxury • Louis lives very well, with every meal a feast Louis Controls the Nobility • Louis keeps nobles at palace to increase his power over them • Builds magnificent palace at Versailles Patronage of the Arts • Versailles is a center of arts during reign of Louis XIV • Purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis NEXT

71 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
SECTION 2 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Attempts to Expand France’s Boundaries • Louis fights wars in 1660s, 1670s to expand France • In 1680s, many countries unite against him in League of Augsburg • France is weakened by poor harvests, warfare, high taxes War of the Spanish Succession • War of the Spanish Succession begins in 1701 • Attempts to prevent union of the French and Spanish thrones • Ends in 1714; France and Spain lose some possessions Continued . . . NEXT

72 Louis’s Death and Legacy
SECTION 2 continued Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Louis’s Death and Legacy • Louis dies leaving mixed legacy • Rule makes France a major military and cultural power in Europe • His wars and palace leave France with heavy debts NEXT

73 Central European Monarchs Clash Section 3
After a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs rule Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia. NEXT

74 Central European Monarchs Clash
SECTION 3 Central European Monarchs Clash The Thirty Years’ War Rising Tension • Tension rises between Lutherans and Catholics in central Europe Bohemian Protestants Revolt • In 1618, Protestants revolt against Catholic Hapsburg rulers • Result is Thirty Years’ War—conflict over religion, land, power Hapsburg Triumphs • From 1618 to 1630, Hapsburg armies have many victories • Troops plunder many German villages Continued . . . NEXT

75 Beginning of Modern States
SECTION 3 continued The Thirty Years’ War Hapsburg Defeats • In 1630, tide turns in favor of Protestants Peace of Westphalia • War ruins German economy, greatly decreases population • Peace of Westphalia (1648) ends war • Treaty weakens Hapsburgs, strengthens France • Treaty introduces idea of negotiating terms of peace Beginning of Modern States • Treaty recognizes Europe as group of independent states NEXT

76 States Form in Central Europe
SECTION 3 States Form in Central Europe Economic Contrasts with the West • Economy in central Europe still based on serfs, agriculture Several Weak Empires • Landowning nobles in central Europe block growth of kings’ power • Ottoman and Holy Roman empires are also weak Austria Grows Stronger • Hapsburgs in Austria take more lands, rule large empire Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne • Maria Theresa becomes empress of Austria, faces years of war NEXT

77 Prussia Challenges Austria
SECTION 3 Prussia Challenges Austria The Rise of Prussia • Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army • Call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs • Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyalty Frederick the Great • Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia • Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws   Continued . . . NEXT

78 War of the Austrian Succession
SECTION 3 continued Prussia Challenges Austria War of the Austrian Succession • In 1740, Frederick starts war against Austria to gain Silesia • Maria Theresa resists Prussian power but loses Silesia in treaty • As result of war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe The Seven Years’ War • Austria allies with France against Britain and Prussia • In 1756, Frederick attacks Saxony, launching Seven Years’ War • France loses colonies in North America; Britain gains India NEXT

79 Absolute Rulers of Russia
Section 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia Peter the Great makes many changes in Russia to try to make it more like Western Europe. NEXT

80 Absolute Rulers of Russia
SECTION 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia The First Czar Ivan the Terrible • In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia • Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles • Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning “Caesar” Rule by Terror • In 1560, Ivan turns against boyars, kills them, seizes lands Rise of the Romanovs • Ivan’s heir is weak, leading to period of turmoil • In 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar NEXT

81 Peter the Great Comes to Power
SECTION 4 Peter the Great Comes to Power The Rise of Peter • Peter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform Russia Russia Contrasts with Europe • Land of boyars and serfs • Cut off geographically from Europe • Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe • Religious differences widen gap Peter Visits the West • In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways NEXT

82 Peter Rules Absolutely
SECTION 4 Peter Rules Absolutely Peter’s Goal • Goal of westernization—using western Europe as model for change Peter’s Reforms • Brings Orthodox Church under state control • Reduces power of great landowners • Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers Continued . . . NEXT

83 Westernizing Russia • Introduces potatoes
SECTION 4 continued Peter Rules Absolutely Westernizing Russia • Introduces potatoes • Starts Russia’s first newspaper • Raises women’s status • Adopts Western fashion • Advances education Continued . . . NEXT

84 Establishing St. Petersburg
SECTION 4 continued Peter Rules Absolutely Establishing St. Petersburg • Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier • Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea • In 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg • Building city takes many years; many serfs die in process • By the time of Peter’s death, Russia is a power to be reckoned with in Europe NEXT

85 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Section 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Absolute rulers in England are overthrown, and Parliament gains power. NEXT

86 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
SECTION 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Monarchs Defy Parliament James’s Problems • James I of Scotland becomes king of England in 1603 • Struggles with Parliament over money, Church reform Charles I Fights Parliament • James’s son, Charles I, becomes king in 1625 • Also fights with Parliament over money • Parliament forces him to sign Petition of Right in 1628 • Petition limits Charles’s power, but he ignores it NEXT

87 English Civil War War Topples a King
SECTION 5 English Civil War War Topples a King • In 1641, Parliament passes laws to limit king’s power • Result is English Civil War (1642–1649) between Puritans, king • In 1644, Oliver Cromwell becomes general on Puritan side • After Puritans win, Charles faces trial and execution in 1649 Continued . . . NEXT

88 Cromwell’s Rule Puritan Morality
SECTION 5 continued English Civil War Cromwell’s Rule • In 1649, Cromwell abolishes monarchy, House of Lords • Becomes military dictator • Suppresses rebellion in Ireland Puritan Morality • Puritans abolish activities they find sinful NEXT

89 Restoration and Revolution
SECTION 5 Restoration and Revolution Cromwell’s End • After Cromwell dies in 1658, government collapses • Next year, Parliament asks son of Charles I to rule Charles II Reigns • Restoration—return of monarchy under Charles II • Habeas corpus—law requiring king to charge prisoner with crime James II and the Glorious Revolution • Charles’s Catholic brother James becomes king in 1685 • Glorious Revolution—bloodless overthrow of James in 1688 NEXT

90 Limits on Monarch’s Power
SECTION 5 Limits on Monarch’s Power A New Type of Monarchy • Protestants William and Mary become rulers of England • Agree to constitutional monarchy—legal limits on royal power Bill of Rights • In 1689, Parliament drafts Bill of Rights • Sets limits on royal power Cabinet System Develops • In 1700s, cabinet, a group of government ministers, develops • Ministers link majority party in Parliament with monarch NEXT

91 Chapter 5 Quiz You can use your notes/study guide

92 Post Unit 3 Journal The following are writing prompts. You need to write 3-5 sentences, but you DO NOT have to answer all or any of the questions. PROMPTS: What did you learn this unit? What did you enjoy the most that we did? What do you want to know more about? What do you think will happen next in the world?

Download ppt "An Age of Explorations and Isolation, 1400–1800"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google