Presentation on theme: "The Stage is Set for War 30 yrs of peace ends in Europe: Europeans had avoided war after the Napoleonic Wars Short wars increase confidence,"— Presentation transcript:
The Stage is Set for War 30 yrs of peace ends in Europe: Europeans had avoided war after the Napoleonic Wars Short wars increase confidence, national pride and willingness to form alliances Crimean War Franco-Prussian War There are four main reasons for World War I …
“All’s Quiet on the Western Front”: “All’s Quiet on the Western Front”: Berlin students on the way to enlist in 1914 for a summer war. 1. Nationalism
Nationalism Goes beyond pride in your nationGoes beyond pride in your nation –More like ethnocentrism –My country is good – all others are bad
Europeans came, they saw, they conquered …
There was fierce competition for colonies: –Growing Industrial nations needed: Colonial empires to provide resources & marketsColonial empires to provide resources & markets “haves” vs. “have nots”“haves” vs. “have nots”
3. Militarism- glorifying military power w/ prepared army Think “arms race”:
4. Entangling Alliances
Wanted alliance systems to “balance power” – failed badly Germany: P.M. Bismarck– 1887Germany: P.M. Bismarck– 1887 –Triple Alliance: Germany, Ottoman Turkey, Austria-Hungary, & Italy; (Russia-non- aggression) Shifting alliances:Shifting alliances: –Kaiser Wilhelm II (1918) dropped their Russian alliance & started ship building 1907: Triple Entente: Britain, France & Russia1907: Triple Entente: Britain, France & Russia
Austria declares war on Serbia Austria declares war on Serbia…. Triple AllianceTriple Entente Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente Germany Russia stays neutral until 1915Italy Ottoman Empire Britain Bulgaria France Austria Belgium Central Powers vs. Allies Central Powers vs. Allies U.S. 1918
Immediate cause of the war: “Powder Keg” of the Balkans: Serbia Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Ferdinand of Austria by the Black Hand the Black Hand 1914
5. Crisis in the Balkans: the Powder Keg of Europe Assassination of Austrian heir:Assassination of Austrian heir: –Archduke Franz Ferdinand & wife Sophie – June 28, 1914 @ Sarajevo By Gavrilo Princip, Serbian radicalBy Gavrilo Princip, Serbian radical July 28, 1914 - Austria declared war on SerbiaJuly 28, 1914 - Austria declared war on Serbia
Assassination by the Black Hand Princip
**Western Front Eastern Front Southern Front
War Consumes Europe Alliance system collapses:Alliance system collapses: –Chain reaction- Schlieffen Plan –Germany attacks France then turns on RussiaSchlieffen Plan –Germany attacks France then turns on Russia –Germany invades Belgium & Britain declares war –2 sides: Good guys = Allies (Britain, France, Russia) –Bad guys = Central Powers (Germany, Ottomans, Austria- Hungary, Bulgaria)
1st Battle of the Marne 1914 Schlieffen Plan
Western Front: Stalemate = trench warfare 1 st Battle of the Marne: French & British hold Germany advance1 st Battle of the Marne: French & British hold Germany advance Trench warfare: 1915 -1918Trench warfare: 1915 -1918 –Trench, barbed wire, “no man’s land” (field of artillery pot holes), –New weapons: poison gas, machine guns, armored tanks, larger artillery, planes, submarines
Trench Warfare: Stalemate…. Or “Over the top”
Stalemate in the trenches!
Eastern Front: Russian border Central powers –Central powers – –Tannenberg: German victory against Russia Russia’s War effort weakens: 1916Russia’s War effort weakens: 1916 –Non-Industrialized Russia – shortage of food, weapons, clothes, boots, blankets, etc –Extremely high casualties: 2 million+ Russians killed just in 1915
Czar Nicholas’s army: Peasant “volunteers” No supplies & no training…..
Eastern Front: Russians: massive defeats Tannenberg, Lodz, Limanowa 1914; Galicia 1915 Results: 2 revolutions Results: 2 revolutions-1917 1. Czar Nicholas II removed and… 2. 1918 … White v. Reds Czar Nicholas to Kerensky to the Communists (Lenin) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918
War Affects the World Global conflict:Global conflict: –Fighting beyond Europe: Dardanelles – 1915: Battle of GallipoliDardanelles – 1915: Battle of Gallipoli –(see Mel Gibson’s movie) –Defeat of Allies –British T.E. Lawrence of Arabia – led Arabs in guerilla war against Turks Germany lost: to Japan parts of China, Pacific Islands; to Britain – African coloniesGermany lost: to Japan parts of China, Pacific Islands; to Britain – African colonies Gandhi in India helped BritishGandhi in India helped British
Battle of Gallipoli, Ottomans v. Australian troops Beginning of technological warfare – Allies lose… machine guns vs. horses & infantry
U.S. declares war: April 2, 1917 Unrestricted submarine warfare 1917Unrestricted submarine warfare 1917 –1915: sinking of British Luisitania –1917: sank 3 US ships Feb 1917: Zimmermann Telegram –Feb 1917: Zimmermann Telegram – –Promised Mexico of all lost land Traditional ties/ heritage w/ BritishTraditional ties/ heritage w/ British
1917 Germany had 146 U-boats on patrol. Race for armament led to war….
The following section is a REAL situation that occurred in WWI… can you guess what? Read and decide what YOU would do…
UC 44 Class U-boat: 1) Aft torpedo tubes 5) Mine tubes 2) Electric motor 6) Forward torpedo tubes 3) Main engine 7) Crew quarters 4) Control room
Submarines were important in WW1. They gave the Germans some control over the British blockade. The war effort was suffering because of lack of sub commander supplies. If you were a sub commander in the North Sea in 1915. What would you do if…
You had to save ships in the submarine zone? 1917, US Admiral William Sims Problem:
German U-Boat : What would you do if you Didn’t have control of the seas like Britain?
You are cruising on the surface off the coast of Britain the coast of Britain. Suddenly you see eight destroyers bearing down on you. Choose one of 4 choices: 1. Full speed away. 2. Fire Torpedoes. 3.Quietly head for the bottom. 4.Move in and fire your deck gun. *Justify your decision...
Next, you meet a small fishing vessel. You have the same 4 choices: 1. Full speed away. 2. Fire Torpedoes. 3. Quietly head for the bottom. 4. Move in and fire your deck gun. What do you do???
Your orders say that at this time you should return home, but you have some torpedoes left and would like to try a location off the Coast of Ireland. What do you do???
You see a large passenger liner moving fast You see a large passenger liner moving fast. It will pass near you. You are submerged. Do you fire torpedoes before the ship sees you? Or, do you warn it before you fire? Or, do you lie quietly and let it pass? Explain your decision... Congratulations! You just sank the Lusitania!
The Lusitania, a Cunard passenger liner that was sunk by U-20 under command of Captain Schweiger on May 7 th, 1915 off the coast of Ireland. 124 Americans were among the 1,198 casualties.
The British steamship Lusitania is shown here departing from New York on its last trip in 1915. During this voyage a German submarine torpedoed the ship off the Irish coast, causing it to sink in 20 minutes; 1,198 people perished as a result; 128 Am.
Notice! Travellers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. Imperial German Embassy Washington, D. C., April 22, 1915 Is this warning enough? Why?
Homefront: U.S. TOTAL WAR: all resources devoted to war against all of the enemy (including civilians)TOTAL WAR: all resources devoted to war against all of the enemy (including civilians) Rationing: limiting of goods needed for fight the war (food for soldiers, gasoline, medicine, etc)Rationing: limiting of goods needed for fight the war (food for soldiers, gasoline, medicine, etc) Propaganda: one sided information designed to persuadePropaganda: one sided information designed to persuade
Women in the War Olveta Culp Hobby (wife of Governor of Texas- created WACs)Olveta Culp Hobby (wife of Governor of Texas- created WACs) Took over all nontraditional jobs –factory, shipbuilding, welding, construction, farming, etcTook over all nontraditional jobs –factory, shipbuilding, welding, construction, farming, etc
American Women shipyard workers, WWI Homefront: Women in Non-Traditional Roles
Allies win the war: Russia withdraws from Eastern Front: Treaty of Brest LitovskRussia withdraws from Eastern Front: Treaty of Brest Litovsk –By 1917: loss of 5.5 million soldiers, food shortages in cities, revolution –Return of Communist Leader: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin March 1918: Germany – last major offensive on Western front – 2 nd Battle of the Marne – won by US troopsMarch 1918: Germany – last major offensive on Western front – 2 nd Battle of the Marne – won by US troops Armistice: Nov 11, 1918Armistice: Nov 11, 1918
left to right, British David Lloyd George Italian Vittorio Orlando French Georges Clemenceau U.S. Woodrow Wilson THE BIG FOUR: Paris…1919
A Flawed Peace – Treaty of Versailles, Jan 18, 1919 Allies’ Big Four:Allies’ Big Four: –President Woodrow Wilson- U.S. –PM Georges Clemenceau – France –PM David Lloyd George – Britain –PM Vittorio Orlando - Italy
Wilson’s 14 Points: Plan for world peace:Plan for world peace: –1 st 4 points: end of secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade & reduction of armies & navies freedom of the seas, free trade & reduction of armies & navies –5 th : adjust colonial claims w/ fairness –6 th -13 th : specific suggestions for changing borders & creating new nations – self -determination –14 th : League of Nations
Anti-League of nations
Wilson’s Great Blunder! The Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles… The U.S. is the ONLY nation not to sign it! Why??? Senator Henry C. Lodge - Reservationists & William Borah - Irreconcilables (Isolationists) *defeat the Treaty = Isolationism (The League w/ modifications)
Actual Treaty of Versailles: HARSH, Revenge – June 28, 1919 Created League of NationsCreated League of Nations US – NEVER signed the Treaty – Isolationists until Pearl HarborUS – NEVER signed the Treaty – Isolationists until Pearl Harbor
Europe Before & After War
Failure of Treaty of Versailles: “Make Germany Pay” *restored Alsace-Lorraine to France *mandate system for Germany overseas *created Poland *huge reparations from Germany ($62 billion) *post-war occupation of Germany by France Italy, France & Britain:
Chart: WWI deaths
* * more effectively killed larger numbers of people
& Zeppelins (dirigibles) & artillery : New Age of Industrial Technology Submarines
Eddie Rickenbacker: US Ace 26 downs (4 balloons) *owner Indianapolis Speedway *president Eastern Airlines *writer
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen He Shot down: 80 planes shot down & killed: April 21, 1918 GERMAN WWI ACE
By 1917 there were: 17,700 gas casualties & 1 out of every 4 shells contained gas
The Arms of Krupp
This rail gun shot up to 30 miles!
With less accuracy, This one shot up to 75 miles! War in the Industial Age!
Poison Gas warfare: outlawed after the horrors of this war!
240,000+ British war amputees When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again…..
1918 German General Ludendorff stages a final assault.
General Pershing speaks to Americans: Leader of the AEF
Americans “Yanks” are “over there”…. *June 14, 1917 Pershing in Paris-- 1 st words “Lafayette, we are here.” WAR TIDE TURNS: Victory for Allies *June 1, 1918 Chateau-Thierry *Sept. 1918 Argonne Forest -offensive April 6, 1917: US Declaration of War
Belleau Wood: June 6-25, 1918 “The Yanks are coming…”
An Uncommon Heroine….carrier pigeons were used to communicate during battles… Saved the 77th US Infantry,under Major Whittlesey, -- pinned by friendly artillery fire (later US won battle). Awarded French metal of valor, Cher Ami was shipped home on a luxury liner and given a ticker tape parade in New York!
“The War to end all Wars”…. WHAT HAPPENED? WHAT HAPPENED?
What made Allied victory possible? 1. U.S. industry –supplied Allies 2. New, fresh troops at a critical time March-85,000; 120,000 by April; 1 million by July; 2 million by Nov. 1918 3. British blockade of Germany