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Lesson 4 Everyday Use for Your Grandmama by Alice Walker.

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1 Lesson 4 Everyday Use for Your Grandmama by Alice Walker

2 Alice Walker

3 Background Information Alice Walker wrote quite a number of novels, among them were The Color Purple which won the Pulitzer Prize of Fiction (普 利策小说奖) and The American Book Award (美国图书奖). In 1985, the Color Purple was made into a movie which won great fame.

4

5 Important & Difficult points The comprehension of the whole story The understanding of colloquial, slangy or black English expressions The appreciation of the writing technique Cultural difference between nationalities in the US

6 Detailed study of the text: 1. wavy: having regular curves –A wavy line has a series of regular curves along it. –The wavy lines are meant to represent water. Here in the text the word describes the marks in wavy patterns on the clay ground left by the broom.

7 Detailed study of the text: 2. groove: a long narrow path or track made in a surface, esp. to guide the movement of sth.(here the explanation is not proper) A groove is a wide, deep line cut into a surface. The cupboard door slides open along the groove it fits into.

8 Detailed study of the text: 3. homely: simple, not grand, (of people, faces, etc.,) not good- looking, ugly If someone is homely, they are not very attractive to look at; used in Am.E.

9 Detailed study of the text: 4. awe: Awe is the feeling of respect and amazement that you have when you are faced with sth. wonderful, frightening or completely unknown. The child stared at him in silent awe.

10 Detailed Study of the Text Section 1 of part I The setting: yard, house Maggie: appearance Comparison with her sister: eying her with a mixture of envy and awe Sister has held life in the palm of one hand

11 Detailed study of the text have made it: if you make it, you are successful in achieving sth. Difficult, or in surviving through a very difficult period. I believe I have the talent to make it. You are brave and courageous. You can make it.

12 Detailed study of the text: 5. confront: to face boldly or threateningly, encounter If a problem, task, or difficulty confronts you, or you are confronted with it, it is sth. that you cannot avoid and must deal with I was confronted with the task of designing and building the new system.

13 II. Detailed study of the text: 6. totter: to move in an unsteady way from side to side as if about to fall, to walk with weak unsteady steps The old lady tottered down the stairs.

14 Detailed study of the text curse: If you curse, you use rude or offensive language,usu. because you are angry about sth. insult: If sb. insults you, they say sth. rude to you or offend you by doing or saying sth. which shows they have a low opinion of you.

15 Detailed study of the text: embrace: to take and hold (another or each other) in the arms as a sign of love, hug Smile into each other ’ s face:

16 Detailed study of the text To smile into each other ’ s face

17 II. Detailed study of the text: 7. limousine: A limousine is a large and very comfortable car sports car: a low usu. open car with room for only 2 people for traveling with high power and speed

18 Detailed study of the text: 8. Johnny Carson: a talk show anchorman 9. tacky: (Am.E, slang) shabby

19 Detailed study of the text: 10. overalls: are a single piece of clothing that combines trousers and a jacket. 11. hog: pig, esp. a fat one for eating

20 Detailed study of the text: 12. sledge hammer: large, heavy hammer for swinging with both hands, a large heavy hammer with a long handle, used for smashing concrete 13. barley: 大麦

21 Detailed study of the text: 14. pancake: a thin, flat circle of cooked batter ( 糊状物 ) made of milk, flour and eggs. usu. rolled up or folded and eaten hot with a sweet or savory filling inside Who ever knew a Johnson … the woman ’ s family name

22 Detailed study of the text With one foot raised in flight … with my head turned in whichever way is farthest from them: Indirect speech act meaning ready to escape,

23 II. Detailed study of the text: 15. sidle: walk as if ready to turn or go the other way A man sidled up to me and asked if I wanted a ticket for the match.

24 II. Detailed study of the text: 16. shuffle: slow dragging walk If you shuffle, you walk without lifting your feet properly off the ground He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of the room.

25 II. Detailed study of the text: I was shuffling in my seat. cf: totter (n.6), sidle(n. 15), shuffle

26 II. Detailed study of the text: 17. blaze: to burn with a bright flame A wood fire was blazing, but there was no other light in the room. n. the sudden sharp shooting up of a flame, a very bright fire The fire burned slowly at first, but soon burst into a blaze.

27 II. Detailed study of the text: 18. sweet gum tree: a large North American tree of the witch hazel ( 榛子 ) family, with alternate maplelike leaves, spiny ( 多刺的 ) fruit balls, and flagrant juice 美洲金缕梅, 落叶灌木或小乔木. 原产于 北美和亚洲. 其分叉小枝从前用为魔杖, 这寻找地下水, 故俗称魔杖.

28 II. Detailed study of the text: 19. dingy: dirty and faded This is the dingiest street of the town.

29 II. Detailed study of the text: 20. raise: to collect together raise money for a holiday His wife raised the money by selling her jewellery. We ’ re trying to raise funds to establish a scholarship.

30 II. Detailed study of the text: 21. underneath: (so as to go) under (sth.) The letter was pushed underneath the door. Did you find very much growing underneath the snow?

31 II. Detailed study of the text: 22. make-believe: a state of pretending or the things which are pretended She lives in a make-believe world / a world of make-believe.

32 II. Detailed study of the text: Don ’ t be afraid of monsters - the story is only make-believe. The little girl made believe she was a princess.

33 II. Detailed study of the text: 23. shove: to push, esp. in a rough or careless way There was a lot of pushing and shoving to get on the bus. Help me to shove this furniture aside.

34 II. Detailed study of the text: If you shove sb. or sth., you push them with a quick, rather, violent movement. He dragged her out to the door and shoved her into the street.

35 II. Detailed study of the text: 24. dimwit: (infml) an ignorant and stupid person dim: faint, not bright wit: intelligence, wisdom at one ’ s wit ’ s end: at the end of one ’ s tether

36 II. Detailed study of the text: 25. organdy: (Br. E organdie) very fine rather stiff cotton material used esp. for women ’ s dresses ( 蝉翼纱, 玻璃纱 )

37 II. Detailed study of the text: 26. pump: low shoe that grips the foot chiefly at the toe and the heel 27. stare down any disaster in her efforts: face up and defeat any disaster with her efforts stare down: two people looking at each other persistently until one shifts his eye

38 II. Detailed study of the text: 28. flicker: to move backwards and forwards unsteadily shadows flickered on the wall flickering eyelids

39 II. Detailed study of the text: 29. stumble: to stop and /or make mistakes in speaking or reading aloud to catch the foot on the ground while moving along and start to fall She stumble at/over the long word He stumbled and stopped reading.

40 II. Detailed study of the text: cf: stammer: to speak or say with pauses and repeated sounds, either habitually or because of excitement, fear, etc.stammerer stutter: to speak or say with difficulty in producing sounds, esp. habitually holding back the first consonant. stutterer

41 II. Detailed study of the text: 30. good-naturedly: naturally kind, ready to help, to forgive, not to be angry A person or animal that is good- natured is naturally friendly and does not easily get angry. a good-natured policeman

42 II. Detailed study of the text: 31. mossy: moss: any of several types of a small flat green or yellow flowerless plant that grows in a thick furry mass on wet soil, or on a wet surface

43 II. Detailed study of the text: 32. hook: to catch with or as if with a hook to hook a fish / a rich husband hooknose Here: to attack with the horn of the cow

44 II. Detailed study of the text: 33. soothe: to make less angry, excited or anxious, comfort or calm, to make less painful soothing words soothe one ’ s feelings

45 II. Detailed study of the text: 34. shingle: a small thin piece of building material (such as wood) often with one end thicker than the other for laying in overlapping rows as a covering for the roof or sides of building

46 II. Detailed study of the text: cf: tile; a flat or curved piece of fired clay, stone, or concrete used esp. for roofs, floors, or walls and often for ornamental work

47 II. Detailed study of the text: 35. porthole: also port, a small usu. circular window or opening in a ship for light or air 36. shutter: a. one that shuts b. movable cover (wooden panel or iron plate, hinged, or separate and detachable) for a window or door, to keep out light or burglars.

48 II. Detailed study of the text: 37. pasture: land where grass is grown and where cattle feed on it 38. furtive: stealthy, If sb. is furtive, he / she behaves as if he / she wants to keep sth. secret or hidden.

49 II. Detailed study of the text: They suddenly looked furtive when I got into the room. I watched him furtively pencil a note and slip it between the pages. A woman with furtive look sidled up to me and asked furtively whether I had / wanted porn CDs.

50 II. Detailed study of the text: 39. hang about: to wait or stay near a place without purpose or activity 40. washday: also washing day, the day when clothes are washed

51 II. Detailed study of the text: 41. impressed with her: impressed by her manner, 42. well-turned: (of a phrase) carefully formed and pleasantly expressed a well-turned phrase: 恰当的词语

52 II. Detailed study of the text: 43. cute: delightfully pretty and often small If you describe sb. as cute you mean that you find them attractive, often in a sexual way

53 II. Detailed study of the text: 44. scald: to burn with hot liquid He scalded his tongue on / with the hot coffee scalding: boiling or as hot as boiling

54 II. Detailed study of the text: court: If a man courts a woman, he pays a lot of attention to her because he wants to marry her.

55 II. Detailed study of the text: 45. flashy: over-ornamented, unpleasantly big, bright, etc. and perhaps not of good quality Something that is flashy is so smart, bright and expensive that you find it unpleasant and perhaps vulgar a flashy sports car / cheap flashy clothes

56 II. Detailed study of the text: 46. recompose: compose: to make (esp. oneself) calm, quiet, etc. Jean was nervous at first but soon composed herself.

57 II. Detailed study of the text: 47. kinky: (esp. of hair) having kinks kink: a backward turn or twist in hair, a rope, chain, pipe, etc. 48. wriggle: to twist from side to side 49. loud: attracting attention by being unpleasantly colourful

58 II. Detailed study of the text: 50. rope: (of 2 or more mountain climbers) to be fastened together with the same rope The word here means the plaits or the pigtails are fastened together

59 II. Detailed study of the text: 51. gliding: to move noiselessly in a smooth, continuous manner, which seems easy and without effort glider: a plane without an engine

60 II. Detailed study of the text: 52. something of a(n)... : (infml) rather a(n), a fairly good If you say that a person or thing has something of a particular quality, feeling, etc., you mean that they have it to some extent.

61 II. Detailed study of the text: He is something of a book collector / a liar / a musician. I am something of a carpenter myself, you know.

62 II. Detailed study of the text: make sth. of oneself: be successful He is a clever boy--- I hope he'll make sth. of himself.

63 II. Detailed study of the text: 53. peek: (infml) to look at sth. quickly, esp. when one should not They caught him peeking through the hole at what was going on in the room

64 II. Detailed study of the text: peep: to look at sth. quickly and secretly It ’ s rude to peep at other people ’ s work. He took a peep at the back of the book to find out the answers to the questions.

65 II. Detailed study of the text: Peek & Peep are not clearly distinguishable when denoting to see what is concealed, or hidden.

66 II. Detailed study of the text: peer: to look very carefully or hard, esp. as if not able to see well She peered through the mist, trying to find the right path. He peered at me over the top of his glasses.

67 II. Detailed study of the text: 54. stoop: to bend the head and shoulders forwards and down 55. cower: to bend low and draw back as from fear, pain, shame, cold etc.

68 II. Detailed study of the text: 56. go through motions with Maggie ’ s hand: Here “ motions ” refer to trying to shake hands with Maggie.

69 II. Detailed study of the text: If you go through the motions, you say or do sth. that is expected of you without being very sincere or serious about it. Or you pretend to do sth. by making the movements associated with a particular action.

70 II. Detailed study of the text: The doctor was sure that the man wasn ’ t ill, but he went through the motions of examining him. I can go through the motions of putting imaginary food into my mouth.

71 II. Detailed study of the text: 57. give up on If you give up on sth., you abandon all hope of doing it or of understanding it

72 II. Detailed study of the text: 57. limp: lacking strength or stiffness n. a way of walking with one foot dragging unevenly v. to walk with an uneven step, one foot or leg moving less well than the other

73 II. Detailed study of the text: 58. There you are: I told you so. There you are. I knew I was right. That ’ s what I expected. I knew you couldn ’ t trace it further back. There I was not: You are not right.

74 II. Detailed study of the text: crop up: arise, happen or appear, unexpectedly Some difficulties have cropped up at work so I ’ ll be late coming home tonight.

75 II. Detailed study of the text: Literally the sentence in the text could possibly understood as follows: I was not there before the name “ Dicie ” appeared in our family, so why... But “ There I was not ” is obviously a quick, short cut answer to “ there you are ”.

76 II. Detailed study of the text: 59. Model A car: in 1909 Henry Ford mass-produced 15 million Model T cars and thus made automobiles popular in the States. In 1928 the Model T was discontinued and replaced by a new design - the Model A - to meet the needs for growing competition in car manufacturing.

77 II. Detailed study of the text: Here he thinks she is quaint, attractive because it is strange and something rather old fashioned 60. ream: sl. say it, spit it

78 II. Detailed study of the text: 61. out of the way: not blocking space for the forward movement of We overcame the difficulty and managed to pronounce it at last) I will move the chair out of your way.

79 II. Detailed study of the text: He ran through the crowd, pushing people out of his way. Her social life got in the way of her studies. We got the name out of the way: we finished talking about it, we set the problem aside. When we got topic A out of the way, we discuss topic B.

80 II. Detailed study of the text: 62. trip: If you trip over something, you knock your foot against something when you are walking and lose your balance so that you fall or nearly fall. I tripped and fell... She tripped over a stone...

81 II. Detailed study of the text: He put each foot down carefully to avoid tripping up. Here: to make a mistake as in a statement or behavior This lawyer always tries to trip witness up by asking confusing questions.

82 II. Detailed study of the text: 63. salt-lick shelters: shelters where blocks of rock salt were kept for cattle to lick 66. doctrine: A doctrine is a principle or belief, or a set of principles of beliefs, which is thought by its supporters to be absolutely true and therefore the only one acceptable

83 II. Detailed study of the text: 64. style: The style of a particular person is all the general attitudes, likes, dislikes, and ways of behaving that are characteristic of him or her. Raising cattle is not my style: I am not interested in raising cattle.

84 II. Detailed study of the text: 65. gone and married: colloq. 66. collard: 宽叶羽衣甘蓝 67. go on through the chitlins etc. 68. chitlins: also chitlings, chitterlings: the intestines of hogs esp. when -prepared as food

85 II. Detailed study of the text: 69. talk a blue streak: speak very fast and very much 70. rump: the part of an animal at the back just above the legs.

86 II. Detailed study of the text: 71. her hand closed over the butter dish: A butter dish is a small rectangular container which you can simply put your hand close over

87 II. Detailed study of the text: 72. if I could have: here if means whether 73. churn: a container in which milk is moved about violently until it becomes butter, Am.E a large metal container in which milk is stored or carried from the farm ( 搅乳器, 盛奶罐 )

88 II. Detailed study of the text: 74. clabber: (not found in Longman or Collins) curdle --- to form into curds, cause to thicken 75. whittle: to cut (wood) to a smaller size by taking off small thing pieces

89 II. Detailed study of the text: 76. dasher: a devise having blades for agitating a liquid or semisolid 77. centerpiece: The centerpiece of a set of things that is greatly admired is sth. that you show as the best example of the set

90 II. Detailed study of the text: 78. alcove: an alcove is a small area in a room which is formed by one part of a wall being built further back than the rest of the wall, a partially enclosed extension of a room, often occupied by a bed or by seats, 凹 室

91 II. Detailed study of the text: 79. to do with the dasher: use the dasher to make sth. artistic

92 II. Detailed study of the text: 80. sink: a depression (part of a surface lower than the other parts) in the land surface The rain collected in several depressions on the ground.

93 II. Detailed study of the text: 81. rifle: to search through and steal everything valuable out of a place The thieves rifled his pockets of all their contents. The burglar rifled the safe. The bad boy rifled the apple tree.

94 II. Detailed study of the text: Here in the text, the word “ rifle ” means to look thorough to see what to take, and indicates that Dee was trying to find sth. she did not deserve.

95 II. Detailed study of the text: 82. hung back: be unwilling to act or move The bridge looked so unsafe that we all hung back in fear.

96 II. Detailed study of the text: 83. scrap: small piece, bit a scrap of paper Scrap of bread were thrown to the birds. There was not a scrap of food left, we ’ ve eaten it all.

97 II. Detailed study of the text: 84. teeny: teeny weeny: also teensy weensy (used esp. to children) very small

98 II. Detailed study of the text: 85. furious: frenzied, angry, violent

99 II. Detailed study of the text: 86. stump: n. the part of a plant, (esp. a tree) remaining attached to the root after the trunk is cut v. put an unanswerable question to, puzzle, perplex If something stumps you, you cannot think of any solution or answer for it.

100 II. Detailed study of the text: The question has stumped philosophers since the beginning of time. You ’ ve go me stumped there.

101 II. Detailed study of the text: 87. snuff: tobacco made into powered for breathing into the nose, esp. used in former times 88. dopey: [ ‘ doupi] showing dullness of the mind or feelings caused or as if caused by alcohol or a drug, sleepy and unable to think clearly, stupid

102 II. Detailed study of the text: 89. hangdog: (of an expression on the face) ashamed, guilty, cowed 90. portion: lot, fate, or fortune, destiny Utter disaster was my portion. What would be my portion after graduation?

103 II. Detailed study of the text: 91. heritage: property that descends to an heir, sth. transmitted by or from a acquired predecessor, sth. possessed as a result of one ’ s natural situation or birth

104 IV. Character Analysis Dee: She has held life always in the palm of one hand. "No" is a word the world never learned to say to her. She would always look anyone in the eye. Hesitation was no part of her nature. She was determined to share down any disaster in her efforts.

105 I. Rhetorical devices: Parallelism: –chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle Metaphor: –She washed us in a river of...burned us... Pressed us...to shove us away –stare down any disaster in her efforts...

106 The end Thanks


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