Presentation on theme: "Ecclesiastical History Mr. Christopher Smith, OP."— Presentation transcript:
Ecclesiastical History Mr. Christopher Smith, OP
What we’ll cover today Ask some important questions: –Why should we study the history of the Church? –What can we learn by studying the history of the Church? Cover a basic timeline of the Church Look at some of the various councils of the Church that have helped bring us to where we are today Relate events in secular history to Church history and discuss some interplay between the two
Starting point… In meditating on what the Church in history has meant and what it means today, I arrived at one thought, one mystery – The Incarnation. Who can tell me what the incarnation is?
The Incarnation Simply put – it is God becoming man. –The Great “I AM” coming down and clothing himself in human flesh Paul understood the significance of Christ’s incarnation and its historical significance. –“But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to ransom those under the law, so that we might receive adoption. As proof that you are children, 4 God sent the spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying out, "Abba, Father!" So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God. (Gal 4:4-7) 4
The Incarnation as a mark of our Faith Belief in the incarnation is the distinctive sign of the Christian Faith. –“This is how you can know the Spirit of God: every spirit that acknowledges Jesus Christ come in the flesh belongs to God” ( I John 4:2). –Without first merging together the historical fact (Jesus of Nazareth was in fact a real person in 1 st century Palestine) with our profession of faith (Jesus was the Son of God sent to redeem the world), then everything done and said after that denial is pointless! –However, note that I didn’t say “meaningless”
The disciples drew that conclusion The reason you and I are here today worshipping the way we do is as a result of the early believers drawing the conclusion that the man they knew (Jesus) was the Son of the God they worshipped (Yahweh) Had they not done that, then Jesus simply would have gone down in “history” as another great man or teacher or at best a prophet. That is why when meditating on what is basis of Church history, I arrived at the central mystery of our faith – the Incarnation …the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us (Jn 1:8-9)
Open Forum Why should we study the history of the Church? What can we learn by studying the history of the Church?
In the beginning… Consider the historical surroundings of Jesus and the “Christians” of the first 50 years. –Everything in life has been conditioned by Greek culture Buildings, government, popular religion (polytheism), etc. Even the way people thought and reasoned were conditioned by the Greeks since they were considered to have all of the great philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato This Greek conditioning is what is know as “Hellenism” –Began ~350 BC with Alexander the Great –Romans take control of area ~25 years prior to Jesus being born (27 BC) So, if you are disciple of Jesus, this is your situation…
Doesn’t look so good You’re part of a people that militarily has no power You have no land to call your own and no King You don’t even speak your native language anymore Your religion (Judaism) is the scorn of the Kingdom –Even your scriptures are printed in Greek and not Hebrew Most of your leaders are controlled by the secular rulers All of you have to hold on to is a promise; a promise that God will be faithful and will send someone to rescue his chosen people –But, then you sigh and wonder sarcastically in disbelief, “how many centuries ago was that promise made?”
From the beginning, Christians were conscious of the their surroundings. –First century Christians had to explain to fellow Jews why they venerated a man executed by the Roman government –After a couple of decades when Christians stopped following Jewish Laws, they had to answer why they had abandoned their tradition –As Paul traveled and brought the message to the Gentiles, they brought him to Areopagus (outside Athens (Greece!)), he had to preach Christ to them (Acts 17).
Christianity initially started out as a movement within Judaism, but as it grew, others (non-Jews) began to join as it moved into Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and Roman Africa. For non-Jewish people to join, it meant for them the same thing it meant for Jews: an abandoning of a way of live practiced for years, many generations back. Christians seemed to have no regard for history or tradition since they abandoned all of it to worship a man who had only recently lived and subsequently died.
Okay…Ready for the Highlights??
First Century 0 – Jesus is born! –No, not really the year 0, probably more like 2 BC 26 – Pontius Pilate becomes governor of Judea 27 – Jesus is Baptized (Mt 3:13) –This could have been as late as – Herod Antipas beheads John the Baptist (Mk 6:17) 30 – Jesus is crucified and Church in Jerusalem is born
First Century 34 – St. Stephen is martyred (Acts 7:54) 35 – Begin the Apostolic Age –Within the lifetime of Jesus original apostles. 37 – Caligula becomes emperor (very anti-Jewish) 40 – Disciples are first called Christians in Antioch –(Acts 11:26) 41 – Herod Agrippa becomes last King of Judea 43 – Rome invades Britain (expansion of Roman Empire)
First Century 44 – Apostle James is beheaded by Herod Agrippa 47 – Paul’s first missionary journey 48 – First council of the Church in Jerusalem –Do non-Jewish converts to Christianity have to meet Jewish laws, specifically, circumcision –Acts – Jews are expelled from Rome 50 – Paul’s second missionary journey 51 – Paul writes I Thessalonians 53 – Paul’s third missionary journey 54 – Nero becomes emperor
First Century 57 – Paul in Greece (Acts 17) 58 – Paul arrested in Jerusalem (Acts 21:27) 60 – Paul appeals to Nero and is placed on house arrest –Apostle Andrew, brother of Peter is killed 63 – Jewish renovation of Temple complete (started 80 years prior) 64 – Rome burns and Nero blames Christians 66 – Apostle Peter is crucified –Linus becomes Bishop of Rome (2 nd Pope) –First Jewish War begins
First Century 67 – Apostle Paul is martyred (beheaded in Rome) 69 – Ignatius becomes Bishop of Antioch –Modern day Syria 70 – Begin the “Sub-apostolic” period –Time immediately after the death of all the apostles; now the people they mentored are in charge of the church 75 – Christians begin to be expelled from Jewish synagogues –Synoptic Gospels are finished (MT, MK, LK)
First Century ~79 Anacletus becomes Bishop of Rome (3 rd Pope) –Eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys Pompeii –Colosseum is completed in Rome 85 – Roman conquest of Britain is complete (began in 43) 90 – Gospel of John is complete 95 – Roman Emperor Domitian declares Christianity to be an “atheistic” religion –Eucharist is now being celebrated almost exclusively on Sunday
First Century 96 – The Sanctus is written (Holy, Holy, Holy) 97 – Timothy, disciple of Paul is killed 100 – Justin Martyr is born –One of the earliest and arguably best Christian apologists in the history of the Church –Before converting, he was extensively trained in Greek logic and philosophy, making him an expert at formulating an idea/argument; esp. in a manner that learned men of the day could understand (basically, he spoke their language)
Second Century 105 – The term “Catholic” is applied to the Church in St. Ignatius Letter to the Smymaeans 110 – Old Roman Creed (precursor to Apostle’s Creed) 128 – Gloria in Excelsis Deo is now required at Mass 130 – Justin Martyr converts 132 – Second Jewish War 135 – Begin the Patristic Period (Ante-Nicene Fathers) –Second fall of Jerusalem; begin Jewish Diaspora 147 – Public opinion about Christianity poor because they refuse to participate in cult sacrifice 155 – Justin Martyr writes his First Apology, reconciling faith and reason
Second Century 165 – Justin Martyr dies. Shrines to Peter and Paul are erected in Rome 177 – Christianity is introduced to Britain 180 – Church is established in North Africa (MAP)(MAP) 194 – List of available New Testament Scriptures 195 – Three fold hierarchy of bishop, presbyter, and deacon is wide-spread 200 – Process for selection of canonical NT scriptures is almost complete
Third Century 210 – Festival to celebrate Christ’s resurrection is an all night event (pre-cursor to Easter Vigil) 215 – Practice of Infant Baptism is common –Grace is said before and after meals –Clement of Alexandria says fish is a Christian Symbol Chinese Han Dynasty ends after ~400 years 235 – Roman Empire under barbarian attack; people turn on old gods and convert to Christianity 245 – N. Africa church has 90 bishops 248 – Barbarians attack Rome 249 – Roman Emperor declares all citizens must sacrifice to Roman gods; those who do not are martyred
Third Century 250 – Pope Fabian makes it mandatory for Christians to receive Eucharist 3x per year (Christmas, Easter, Pentecost) –First know hermit (Paul of Thebes) –Infant baptism is now normative 253 – Church in Rome begins shift from Greek to Latin 257 – Valerianic Persecution – Christians are no longer allowed to gather and all their property is confiscated –Valerian dies in 259 and there is a huge growth in Church 268 – Collegial Authority – belief that when acting together the bishops form a body greater than an individual 283 – Clerical celibacy – common and preferred but not mandatory
Third Century 284 – Diocletian becomes Roman Emperor –Diocletian reforms: to promote stability, he centers all state power on the emperor as a semi-divine being 298 – Christians in Roman Army are forced to resign 300 – Christians confess their sins to a bishop instead of public confession –Rome has more than 40 churches in city limits
Fourth Century – Diocletian Persecution also known as Great Persecution. Most extensive repression of Christianity 306 – Christ’s nativity begins to be celebrated on winter solstice 313 – Edict of Milan (Constantine the Great) gives equal toleration for all religions 321 – Sunday becomes official “day of rest” for empire 324 – Constantine reunites Roman Empire and becomes Emperor 325 – Council of Nicea Arianism – Denies the Father and Son are one Drafts the Nicene Creed Defines date for Easter
Fourth Century – Lent becomes a 40 day fast and preparation period 326 – Constantine builds the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem _Period of Post-Nicene Fathers begins 350 – Cyril of Jerusalem describes the lavabo (priest washing his fingers) as the symbol for purity of the soul Feast of the Purification of the BVM 361 – Feast of the Epiphany Manifestation of Christ 373 – Feast of All Saint’s Day Athanasius teaches BVM remained virgin after birth of XP 375 – Assumption of BVM is taught
Fourth Century – Council of Constantinople – affirms the divinity of the Holy Spirit along with Father and Son Formulated Creed we say in Mass today 386 – Augustine of Hippo converts to Catholicism 391 Ordained a priest 395 becomes Bishop of Hippo 390 – Canon of the Mass takes on the form used in the modern church 392 – Observance of Good Friday 393 – Synod of Hippo Eucharistic fast, Maundy Thursday, list of books in NT 395 – Roman Empire is divided permanently into E & W
Fifth Century – Bishops begin to fall into secular administrator roles since division/collapse of Roman Empire 420 – Augustine and Jerome recommend striking of breast during confession of sin 430 – Augustine of Hippo dies 431 – 1 st Council of Ephesus Declares Mary to be Theotokos – Mother of God St. Patrick begins mission to Ireland 451 – Council of Chalcedon First systematic work on the doctrine of the Incarnation 452 – Begin period of Early Medieval Church Pope Leo convinces Attila the Hun not to invade Rome
Fifth Century – Confirmation begins to be separate rite apart from baptism 476 – “Fall of Roman Empire” – imperial office is left vacant Beginning of Early Middle Ages or “Dark Ages” 485 – Greek language becoming less common in west 492 – Title “Vicar of Christ” Inherited title. The Pope has responsibility for the Church
Sixth Century – Lamb of God sung before communion 525 – Dionysius Exiguus affixes Christ’s birth to Dec 25 Begins using BC and AD (12 Days of Christmas)(12 Days of Christmas) 540 – Benedictines begin wearing the scapular, which signifies the Yoke of Christ (cf. Mt. 11:30) 550 – Bodily assumption of BVM is normative 561 – Council of Braga condemns suicide and prevents person committing such an act a Christian burial 570 – Muhammad, founder of Islam is born in Mecca 589 – Council of Toledo. (Filoque Clause) “Spirit proceeds from the Father and Son” Finalizes the Creed as seen in Modern Church
Sixth Century – Population of Rome cut in half due to flooding 593 – Pope Gregory the Great teaches the offering of the Eucharist for souls in purgatory will be to their benefit 594 – Population in Europe cut in half by plague
Seventh Century – Persians destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulcher Rebuilt in – Doctrine of Immaculate Conception of BVM is taught 630 – Muhammad conquers Mecca Dies in – Arab Muslims conquer Jerusalem 651 – Canon of Koran is formalized Arab Muslims conquer Persian Empire 655 – St. Martin I dies. Last martyred Pope 672 – Development of Gregorian Chant 675 – Intinctio Panis, dipping body into the blood is forbidden at 3 rd Council of Braga
Seventh Century – Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem (PIC)(PIC) 698 – Carthage falls to Islamic armies. Christianity begins a four century long suppression
Eighth Century – Feast of Annunciation of the BVM is universal 731 – First known church organ is installed 741 – All Saint’s Day is set as November 1 st 781 – Christianity reaches China 787 – 2 nd Council of Nicea Icons can be venerated but not worshipped Declares no church is to be consecrated w/o a relic 800 – Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as the first Augustus of the Holy Roman Empire Latin is the language of the Church and of all scholarship Exultet sung during the Easter Vigil takes its modern form
Ninth Century – Charlemagne, first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies 830 – Christianity in Sweden 843 – Treaty of Verdun: splits the Holy Roman Empire among Charlemagne’s three grandsons 846 – Arab Muslims sack Rome 850 – Confirmation is taught to confer a distinct grace separate from baptismal grace; specifically the grace is the Holy Spirit to help one resist evil. Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ Custom of sprinkling the congregation w/ holy water Custom of incensing the altar, celebrant, and people
Ninth Century – Patriarch of Constantinople declares independence from Rome due to a disagreement over the Filoque clause (589). 879 – Pope and Patriarch excommunicated one another. Bartholomew Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch and Pope John Paul II, Bishop of Rome (Vatican City, Nov 2004)
Tenth Century – Miters are worn by Bishops 962 – Pope John XII crowns Otto, King of Germany, as the Holy Roman Emperor, thus reinaugurating the Holy Roman Empire 979 – Stained glass is becoming more common as process is refined 989 – Christianity being spread through Russia 993 – Earliest “official” canonization. Pope John XV declares Ulric, bishop of Augsburg a “Saint” 998 – All Souls Day is established in France and is set for November 2 nd. A day to remember all the faithful departed.
The next 1000 years (in 8 slides) 1009 – Islamic Soldiers destroy Church of Holy Sepulcher 1014 – Nicene Creed recited by all at Mass 1030 – First formulations of the Hail Mary Prayer 1050 – Church claims jurisdiction over marriage 1054 – East/West Schism (a.k.a. The Great Schism)The Great Schism –Final break between Orthodox (Eastern) and Latin Rite (Western) Churches; all this is still related to Filoque clause and a few other theological differences –In 1965 both churches lifted the anathemas and excommunications placed against one another in 1054
1073 – Title “Pope” is reserved for Bishop of Rome 1074 – Clerical celibacy is mandated 1095 – First Crusade begins (Pope Urban II) –1099 Crusades capture Jerusalem (MAP)(MAP) 1125 – Different colors for different liturgical seasons 1140 – Crusaders rebuild Church of Holy Sepulchre 1175 – Use of Candles and elevation of Host 1189 – Richard the Lionheart, King of England
1202 – The rosary is devised 1215 – 4 th Lateran Council –Transubstantiation is declared dogma –Faithful must receive Eucharist once a year (Easter) –Modern system of private penance (reconciliation) –Seal of the confessional is binding 1217 – 5 th crusade and the last w/ Papal Authority 1224 – Francis of Assisi manifests the stigmata 1226 – Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
1231 – Inquisition begins – St. Thomas Aquinas begins work on ST 1274 – 2 nd council of Lyons establishes doctrine of Purgatory (as devised by Aquinas) 1291 – End of the Crusades 1347 – Beginning of “Black Death” kills nearly 1/3 of Europe 1431 – Joan of Arc burned at the stake 1453 – Constantinople falls to the Muslims
1517 – Luther writes his 95 theses, protests the sale of indulgences –Beginning of Protestant Reformation! –1518 – refuses to recant –1520 – Luther excommunicated –1527 – Lutheran reform in Sweden –1528 – Protestant reform in Scotland –1545 – Council of Trent begins, Catholic response to the reformation. Council has four sessions and ends – KJV Bible
Finishing up… 1789 – French Revolution 1790 – John Carroll of Baltimore, first US Bishop 1791 – 1 st Amendment (Separation of Church/State) 1815 – Napoleon defeated at Waterloo 1851 – Pope Pius IX promulgates the perpetual adoration devotion 1869 – First Vatican Council (Papal Infallibility) 1914 – WWI begins 1922 – USSR formerly recognized
1929 – Italy and Vatican conclude Lateran Treaty which established Vatican as own City-State 1939 – WWII begins 1950 – Pope Pius XII declares the doctrine of the Assumption 1962 – Vatican II begins 1965 – Vatican II closes 1967 – Charismatic Renewal begins 1968 – Pope Paul VI published Humanae Vitae prohibiting artificial birth control
1973 – US Supreme Court legalizes abortion 1984 – US seminarians is 12,000 (47,500 in 1964) 1994 – CCC published. First universal catechism in over four centuries 1998 – President Bill Clinton, 2 nd president to be impeached October 16, 2003 – JP II has 4 th longest pontificate in history (24 Years, 7 months, 20 days) –Upon his death, he was up to 3 rd at 26 years, 5 months, 17 days only Pius IX (31 years 7 months) and St. Peter (37 Years) are longer April 19, 2005 – Benedict XVI becomes 265 th Pontiff
Domed Muslim shrine in Jerusalem that stands on the traditional site of the Temple of Solomon (the first Jewish temple), the rock where, in the Biblical story of Abraham, Abraham had offered the sacrifice of his son Isaac to God. For Muslims, it is the third holiest site of pilgrimage (after Mecca and Medina), since it was also here that the prophet Muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven to receive the commandments of God.
The 12 Days of Christmas Aside from the fact that Epiphany—which comes twelve days after Christmas—used to mark the end of the Christmas Season, the “Twelve Days of Christmas” are not really any part of Catholic liturgy. The song of that name actually derives from a time in England from 1558 to 1829 when it was illegal to be a Catholic, and so the song contains a hidden catechism of Catholic theology: A Partridge in a Pear Tree: Jesus Christ Two Turtle Doves: The Old and New Testaments Three French Hens: The Theological Virtues (Faith, Hope, and Charity) Four Calling Birds: The Four Gospels / The Four Evangelists Five Golden Rings: The first Five Books of the Old Testament, the “Pentateuch” Six Geese a-Laying: The Six Days of Creation Seven Swans a-Swimming: The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit / The Seven Sacraments Eight Maids a-Milking: The Eight Beatitudes Nine Ladies Dancing: The Nine Fruits of the Holy Spirit Ten Lords a-Leaping: The Ten Commandments Eleven Pipers Piping: The Eleven Faithful Apostles Twelve Drummers Drumming: The Twelve Points of Doctrine in the Apostle’s Creed