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AP World History World War I Chapter 34 Differing Viewpoints  “Family Feud”  “Fall of the Eagles”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the.

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Presentation on theme: "AP World History World War I Chapter 34 Differing Viewpoints  “Family Feud”  “Fall of the Eagles”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AP World History World War I Chapter 34

3 Differing Viewpoints  “Family Feud”  “Fall of the Eagles”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”

4 Colonial Rivalries : Africa in 1914

5 Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914

6 The British Empire in 1914

7 The Balkans in 1878

8 The Balkan Wars:

9 Europe in 1914

10 The Balkans in 1914

11 Cause #1: Militarism Belief that one’s country needs a strong and large military Belief that one’s country needs a strong and large military Includes belief in build-up of navies Includes belief in build-up of navies –Britain had best navy in the world in 1900 –Germany began building up their navy to compete with Britain –Britain responds with even greater production

12 Cause #2: Alliances Europe’s major powers entered into many alliances with one-another. Europe’s major powers entered into many alliances with one-another. Designed to keep the peace and fulfill obligations Designed to keep the peace and fulfill obligations In reality: the network of alliances meant an attack on one nation could bring all of its allies to its aid In reality: the network of alliances meant an attack on one nation could bring all of its allies to its aid Small conflicts could escalate quickly Small conflicts could escalate quickly

13 Cause #3: Imperialism European countries competed with one another for colonies around the world Rivalry between Germany-France & Germany- Britain was the most intense Germany felt “left-out” – esp. in Africa & Asia These rivalries help shape future alliances & led to conflicts before WWI ever started –F–F–F–French/German Moroccan conflict 1905 –B–B–B–Balkan Wars of

14 Cause #4: Nationalism The belief that people with similar ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form their own country The belief that people with similar ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form their own country –Some Euro. areas (Germany, Italy, Belgium) had gained independence; others (esp. the Balkan region) hadn’t yet –Austria-Hungary was an empire with many people – esp. “Slavs” – wanting independence (using nationalism as primary reason) – Intensified by Russia’s “Pan-Slavism” policy –Nationalism also included strong pride in one’s country (belief it should “outshine” others) – esp. colonies

15 Colonial Rivalries : Africa in 1914

16 Alliance System – Major players before the war The Triple Alliance (Central Powers): The Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Germany Germany Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Bulgaria The Triple Entente (The Allied Powers): The Triple Entente (The Allied Powers): Britain Britain France France Russia Russia

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18 The “Spark” that starts the war Serbian Nationalist group called the “Black Hand” wanted Serbian unity & less power for Austria- Hungary in Balkan region Serbian Nationalist group called the “Black Hand” wanted Serbian unity & less power for Austria- Hungary in Balkan region

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20 Spark, Con’t: Assassination of the Archduke Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austria-Hungary throne) assassinated by Gavrilo Princip while visiting Sarajevo (in Bosnia- Herzegovina) Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austria-Hungary throne) assassinated by Gavrilo Princip while visiting Sarajevo (in Bosnia- Herzegovina) Austria-Hungary issues ultimatum to Serbia – then declares war on Serbia Austria-Hungary issues ultimatum to Serbia – then declares war on Serbia

21 The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip

22 Movement Toward War June 28, Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated June 28, Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated July 28 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 28 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 30 – Russia (Serbia’s ally) mobilizes armed forces July 30 – Russia (Serbia’s ally) mobilizes armed forces August 1 – Germany (Austria-Hungary’s ally) declares war on Russia August 1 – Germany (Austria-Hungary’s ally) declares war on Russia August 3 – Germany declares war on France (Russia’s ally); prepares for invasion of Belgium (Schlieffen Plan) August 3 – Germany declares war on France (Russia’s ally); prepares for invasion of Belgium (Schlieffen Plan) August 4 – Britain, pledging to protect Belgium, declares war on Germany August 4 – Britain, pledging to protect Belgium, declares war on Germany August 6 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia August 6 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia August 12 – France and Britain declare war on Austria- Hungary August 12 – France and Britain declare war on Austria- Hungary

23 Who’s To Blame?

24 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

25 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

26 The War Begins Speedy war expected (“We’ll be home by Christmas”) Speedy war expected (“We’ll be home by Christmas”) War of “glory” expected War of “glory” expected All had belief in victory – “God is on our side” All had belief in victory – “God is on our side”

27 German Poster

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29 Schlieffen Plan: Germany would attack fast by going through neutral Belgium along the coast and defeat France quickly, and then take on Russia in the East. Germany did NOT want to fight a war on two fronts!

30 The reality of War – The Western Front Hopes of quick war gives way to stalemate along Western Front – Trench Warfare –S–S–S–Soldiers fought each other from dug out trenches –W–W–W–Would storm each other’s trenches –V–V–V–Very bloody and each side would gain very little land –a–a–a–advanced about one mile per month

31 Trench Conditions Trenches were infested by rats and disease Trenches were infested by rats and disease dead bodies littered the ground dead bodies littered the ground Food was scarce and sleep was almost impossible due to constant artillery blasts Food was scarce and sleep was almost impossible due to constant artillery blasts

32 “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud, and dreamed mud” “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud, and dreamed mud”

33 Trench Warfare

34 New Weapons Machine Guns Machine Guns Tanks Tanks Barbed Wire Barbed Wire Poison Gases Poison Gases Large Artillery Large Artillery Airplanes Airplanes Submarines Submarines What were the point of these new weapons? What were the effects of introducing these new weapons? What were the point of these new weapons? What were the effects of introducing these new weapons? It has been said that WWI was the first “industrialized” war. What does that mean? What are the effects when war is industrialized? It has been said that WWI was the first “industrialized” war. What does that mean? What are the effects when war is industrialized?

35 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

36 French Renault Tank

37 British Tank at Ypres

38 U-Boats

39 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

40 The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

41 The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.

42 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

43 The Zeppelin

44 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

45 Poison Gas Machine Gun

46 Brutality of New Warfare Unprecedented casualties Unprecedented casualties Verdun Verdun –315,000 French killed –280,000 German casualties –Less than 160,000 bodies recovered The Somme - British gain few thousand yards The Somme - British gain few thousand yards –420,000 casualties –No significant strategic advantage

47 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

48 War Is HELL !!

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50 The Eastern Front Much more fluid than the West Much more fluid than the West Many early losses by Allied Powers (esp. Russia – creating a lack of popularity for the war and for the Czar in Russia) Many early losses by Allied Powers (esp. Russia – creating a lack of popularity for the war and for the Czar in Russia)

51 War around the World – Colonies at War Not just a European war – but a global conflict (colonies were expected to help – often with men & resources) Japan entered the war on the side of the Allies (wanted to rid Germany from East Asia – esp. China & Pacific)  Plus, Japan could gain colonies –C–C–C–Conquered many German possessions in Asia –J–J–J–Japan issues “21 Demands” on China Germany fought Britain and France in Africa The Allied failure of the Gallipoli Campaign

52 Sikh British Soldiers in India

53 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

54 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

55 Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China

56 Total War WWI was fought by entire societies – not just armies (includes the military front & the home front – both equally important) WWI was fought by entire societies – not just armies (includes the military front & the home front – both equally important) The Home Front included each nations’ ability to mobilize its economy & non- combat citizens for the war effort The Home Front included each nations’ ability to mobilize its economy & non- combat citizens for the war effort

57 WWI – The Home Front Big “Home Front” Themes – –“–“–“–“Industrialized” wars required new levels of government oversight and propaganda, damaging the 19th century ideal of laissez-faire economics. –T–T–T–The necessity of using women in European factories damaged the traditional middle-class ideas of a patriarchal society with separate spheres for women & men –N–N–N–New “Rules of Engagement” with Civilians as targets Bombing of cities / destroying passenger ships Blockading countries

58 The Home Front – Changes in the Economy Governments abandoned laissez-faire approach in favor of tight-controls over economy (production quotas, price controls, restrictions on workers) Why? Governments abandoned laissez-faire approach in favor of tight-controls over economy (production quotas, price controls, restrictions on workers) Why? Huge demand for workers at home (why?) Huge demand for workers at home (why?)

59 Women in WWI At home: Women took “male” jobs & took new roles (factory work – esp. munitions, often dangerous) At home: Women took “male” jobs & took new roles (factory work – esp. munitions, often dangerous) At war: Women worked mainly as nurses and clerical workers At war: Women worked mainly as nurses and clerical workers Impact of the war for women Impact of the war for women –Very liberating for upper-class women / less so for lower classes –Women still earned less than men for equal work –War served as liberating force for women (voting rights granted in several countries after war)

60 Financing the War

61 Munitions Workers

62 French Women Factory Workers

63 German Women Factory Workers

64 Working in the Fields

65 A Woman Ambulance Driver

66 Red Cross Nurses

67 Women in the Army Auxiliary

68 Russian Women Soldiers

69 WWI Propaganda / Civil Liberties Propaganda included all of the following: Propaganda included all of the following: –Promoted national unity –Censored bad war news –Vilified the enemy (sub-human savages) –Restriction of civil liberties (often illegal to criticize the gov’t) Joseph Callaux in France Joseph Callaux in France Charles Schenck in the U.S. Charles Schenck in the U.S.

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72 German atrocities in Belgium

73 Russian Revolution Russia was performing very poorly in the war (massive casualties vs. Germans on Eastern Front) Russia was performing very poorly in the war (massive casualties vs. Germans on Eastern Front) –Armies began to disintegrate –Food shortages & protests common –Czar Nicholas II forced to step down in March 1917 (Romanov Dynasty [300 yr. old] ends) –Revolutionary movement led by “soviets” began to take shape Soviet: Revolutionary councils organized by Socialists in Russia Soviet: Revolutionary councils organized by Socialists in Russia

74 Russian Revolution (Con’t) Russia broke down into two camps (The Provisional Government & the Petrograd Soviet) Russia broke down into two camps (The Provisional Government & the Petrograd Soviet) Provisional Government had the power – and did accomplish a number of reforms Provisional Government had the power – and did accomplish a number of reforms –BUT…the major goals for the masses of people were to 1.) End the War, and 2.) Land Reform –The Provisional Gov’t claimed it couldn’t do either –The Petrograd soviet felt it COULD do these

75 Vladimir Lenin Radical Marxist who believed in quickly ending the War Wanted to impose Marxist socialism in Russia – but believed in the need for a disciplined “workers party” that would bring about change Headed new group of Russian Socialists called the Bolsheviks

76 Bolsheviks seize power Gained control of the Petrograd soviet Gained control of the Petrograd soviet Won respect of peasants after Provisional Gov’t wouldn’t end the war, feed the people, or put forth land reforms Won respect of peasants after Provisional Gov’t wouldn’t end the war, feed the people, or put forth land reforms Bolsheviks promised people “Peace, Land, and Bread.” Bolsheviks promised people “Peace, Land, and Bread.” Popular support allowed Lenin & the Bolsheviks to seize power fully in Nov Popular support allowed Lenin & the Bolsheviks to seize power fully in Nov. 1917

77 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk After departing the war – the Bolshevik rulers negotiated a treaty with Germany - ending Russia’s participation in the war After departing the war – the Bolshevik rulers negotiated a treaty with Germany - ending Russia’s participation in the war –Germany got possession of a large segment of Russian territory & ¼ of its population –Russia was out of the war and free to address problems at home.

78 U.S. Enters the War America had been officially neutral from America had been officially neutral from Some believed “an Allied victory made good financial sense” in America (U.S. banks loaned lots of $$ to Allies) Some believed “an Allied victory made good financial sense” in America (U.S. banks loaned lots of $$ to Allies) America finally enters the war (reasons why) America finally enters the war (reasons why) –Germany resumed Unrestricted Sub Warfare on merchant ships (sinking of the Lusitania & others) –Zimmerman Telegram leaked –U.S.’s official policy: “the world must be made safe for democracy”

79 The Sinking of the Lusitania

80 The end of the War Surge by American troops in late 1917 and 1918 was too much for the Germans Surge by American troops in late 1917 and 1918 was too much for the Germans Allies push through the Western Front lines in 1918 Allies push through the Western Front lines in 1918 Germany was exhausted after 4 years of “Total War” (running low on materials, people tired) Germany was exhausted after 4 years of “Total War” (running low on materials, people tired) Armistice to end the war signed on Nov. 11, 1918 Armistice to end the war signed on Nov. 11, 1918

81 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

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83 World War I Casualties

84 Post-War Agreements U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proposed his Fourteen Points – which called for: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proposed his Fourteen Points – which called for: –End to secret treaties –Freedom of the seas –Freedom of trade –Reduction in the size of armies/navies –Fix to the colonialism issue (give equal interests to owner of colony & natives) –Promote “Self- Determination” –Form an international peacemaking organization (League of Nations)

85 Post-War Agreements (Con’t) Leaders of France, Britain, U.S. dominated talks at the Paris Peace Conference – 1919 to pass a series of treaties. Leaders of France, Britain, U.S. dominated talks at the Paris Peace Conference – 1919 to pass a series of treaties. Representatives from Germany & Russia were not invited Representatives from Germany & Russia were not invited

86 Treaty of Versailles –Passed the Treaty of Versailles - which said: Germany must accept sole responsibility for war Germany must accept sole responsibility for war Germany must have a “limited” army/navy Germany must have a “limited” army/navy Germany forced to give up overseas empire (all colonies & possessions) Germany forced to give up overseas empire (all colonies & possessions) Germany must pay war reparation payments of over $30 billion Germany must pay war reparation payments of over $30 billion (Territory, Military, Reparations, and GUILT) Germany complained the treaty was overly harsh and embarrassing Germany complained the treaty was overly harsh and embarrassing

87 Self Determination The ability for people to rule themselves – choose their own government – and not be ruled by others The ability for people to rule themselves – choose their own government – and not be ruled by others Had its limitations / rules Had its limitations / rules –World said “no” to a united Germany/Austria –Often difficult to redraw boundaries fairly –Didn’t always work well (Yugoslavia – land of the south Slavs – actually made up of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes)

88 Turkey with Mustafa Kemal Turkish Nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal was upset that the Ottoman Sultan was negotiating with the Allies after the war Turkish Nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal was upset that the Ottoman Sultan was negotiating with the Allies after the war Kemal started a nationalist movement, defied the Allies, drove them out, abolished the old sultanate and formed the Republic of Turkey Kemal started a nationalist movement, defied the Allies, drove them out, abolished the old sultanate and formed the Republic of Turkey

89 Republic of Turkey Kemal rules Turkey as its first president Kemal rules Turkey as its first president Put forth a program of “modernization” Put forth a program of “modernization” –Economic development with industrialization –Move toward secular government Women can vote European-derived law Western Alphabet Western clothing

90 The Mandate System A “mixture” or “transition” between colonialism and self-determination After the war – the old colonies of the Central Powers had to be divided up –A–A–A–America didn’t want a return to “old fashion” colonial system –A–A–A–As a compromise – set up the Mandate System – Allies would administer these areas until they could “stand on their own” –F–F–F–French ruled Mandates in former Ottoman territories of Syria and Lebanon –B–B–B–British established Mandates in Iraq and Palestine –S–S–S–Some hated the idea – Allies saw it as an “unpleasant reality” for places that weren’t ready for self rule yet

91 Effects of the war – things to consider Europe is now weaker – U.S. takes a new position as a world power Europe is now weaker – U.S. takes a new position as a world power Global depression is looming because of war Global depression is looming because of war Revolutionary ideas spread to areas around the world Revolutionary ideas spread to areas around the world

92 Effects of WWI on East Asia; Middle East; South Asia)- Essay Main Points: Main Points: –Strong desire for self-rule in post WWI climate –Move toward economic independence –The Worldwide Economic Depression

93 Post WWI Effects on East Asia (China and Japan) China: China: –Economic / Political breakdown (examples) –Nationalism on the rise (examples) Desire for self-rule / end imperialism & unequal treaties Desire for self-rule / end imperialism & unequal treaties Some turn to Marxism (rise of Communist movement - Mao Zedong) Some turn to Marxism (rise of Communist movement - Mao Zedong)Japan: -Winning side of WWI -Economic / political chaos caused by Depression -React to econ problems by invading Chinese Manchuria in 1931

94 South Asia - India Political effects – post WWI: Political effects – post WWI: –Indian National Congress (INC) – formed pre-WWI – but pushed hard for self-rule after war –Motivated by Wilson’s message of self-determination and Lenin’s message of anti-colonialism / revolution of proletariat, etc. –Turmoil leads to movement by Mohandas Gandhi –Shifts INC from elitist body to one of the common man

95 Mohandas Gandhi Fought segregation, mistreatment of Indians -Passive non-violence, tolerance, simple living, non materialism, abstention from worldly pleasures -Fought for lowest castes through civil disobedience and boycott of British goods


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