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The True Hollywood Story Sections 1-2 Ms. Garratt.

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1 The True Hollywood Story Sections 1-2 Ms. Garratt

2  Nobel Peace Prize  Women’s Suffrage Movement  Universal Peace Conference 1899 set up the Hague Tribunal, a world court to settle disputes. (Could not enforce rulings)  Olympics

3 Pros and cons of nationalism Nationalism accentuates rivalries among Great Powers Economic Territorial disputes – Alsace-Lorraine Competition for overseas empires Competition for the Balkans Geopolitical rivalries

4 Brit felt threatened by Germ’s econ growth By 1900 Germ’s new modern factories out-produced Brit’s older ones Germ was jealous because it had fewer colonies “Sun never sets……Germany’s own place in the sun” Competition for colonies brought Germ & Fr to the brink of war in 1905 & 1911 over Morocco Brit & France developed closer ties against Germany

5 Arms/naval/industrial rivalry between Britain & Germany Territorial disputes between France & Germany (Alsace- Lorraine)

6  Glorification of military  War was romanticized  Aggressive Nationalism increased due to competition  Fear of war gave generals power & influence  Their war plans will …..  They asked for larger defense expenditures for war readiness  Matter of time before

7 Domestic Politics Theory Leaders want to divert attention away from domestic problems such as: Strikes Communist/Socialist agitation Corruption Economic problems

8  Central Powers or Triple Alliance  Germ  AH  Italy backs out  Ottoman Empire joins in 1915  The Allies  France  Brit  Russia

9 Two multinational empires encountered rising nationalism Austro-Hungarian Empire The Ottoman Empire Balkan countries did not want to be part of either empire

10 Pan-Slavism is the belief that all Slavic peoples shared a common heritage & nationality. Slavic nations in the Balkans wanted independence Russia, the largest Slavic nation encouraged & felt a duty to defend its Slavic neighbors By 1914 it was determined to defend Serbia

11  Sarajevo, Bosnia  Terrorist group - Black Hand  Politically, FF was seen as a threat because he:  advocated reforms which angered conservatives in AH and;  angered the Serbs because his concessions might weaken their radical movement

12  Ultimatum demanded that Serbia allow AH participate in investigation & end all agitation directed against AH  Serbia agreed to most but not all demands  AH declared war on Serbia  This might have remained local, quick war were it not for the alliance system

13  Kaiser Wilhelm II was outraged at the murder of a royal heir  Gave AH carte blanche & assurance of German backing.  Rather than urge caution the Kaiser advised Franz Joseph to take a firm stand

14  Russia was the champion of pan- Slavism – the idea that all Slavs share a common heritage.  Serbia looked to Russia for support.  Czar Nicholas II urged the Kaiser to convince AH to soften its demands  When this did not work – Russia began to mobilize  Germ responded by declaring war on Russia

15 Russia then turned to France Germany demanded that France remain neutral but…. France gave Russia the same backing as Germany gave AH France hoped to get even with Germany for the 1870 Franco-Prussian War When France refused to remain neutral Germary declared war on France

16 Brit was cautious at first until Germany violated Belgium neutrality Britain was obligated by treaty to maintain Belgium neutrality

17 Schlieffen Plan Germ had to avoid two-front war Germ wanted to quickly attack & subdue so it could concentrate its forces on the Eastern front. Once Germ invaded Belgium neutrality Brit felt duty bound to honor its treaty obligations


19 Each side thought its cause was just AH wanted to punish Serbia Germ felt must stand by its ally, AH Russ felt duty to stand by Serbia & saw ultimatum as attempt to oppress slavs Fr felt need to support Russ or face Germ alone Brit obligated to defend Belgium neutrality Intensive jingoism Jubilation once war was declared


21  You will be assigned a country.  You will explain & defend your assigned country’s position/decision to go to war.  You may use the text for preparation  After completing your position you will debate the other three members of your group.  Germany  Russia  France  Britain

22 Jubilation Jingoism Workers turn back on socialist views

23  Stalemate on the Western Front.  Battles of Verdun and Somme resulted in millions dead.,  Each side only gained a few miles for all its casualties  No man’s land





28 War more mobile than West Russians poorly equipped & trained Battle of Tannenberg Russian Revolution was major turning pt. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Turning Point: Germans throw their weight to the Western front

29  Poison Gas  Tanks  Machine Guns  Submarine  Airplanes


31 Battle of the Marne Battle of Sommes Verdun Battle of Capporetto Gallipoli Middle East under Lawrence of Arabia

32 Russian Revolution 1917 US Entry in the war 1917 What effect did these events have on the war?

33  Official US policy  Immigrants often took sides  Loans made to Allies tied us to them  Brit cut Transatlantic cable to control info & vilify Germ  Neutrality was threatened due to submarine warfare & particularly the Lusitania incident

34 Pressure to enter the war was due to 3 factors: (1) unrestricted sub warfare (2) Zimmerman Telegram (3) Desire to play a role in peace process

35  Luisitania  Reneged on the 1916 Sussex Pledge in 1917  Why? Due to Brit blockade & because Germ did not really consider the US neutral  Wilson refused to disallow Americans from traveling the seas  This caused S/S Bryan to resign


37 Germany promised Mexico to help it regain land lost in the Mexican- American war if it joined alliance





42 Secret agreements (Sykes-Picot Agreement) Self-determination applied to eastern Europe but not colonies Harsh terms for Germ - forced to pay reparations for damages & pensions Germ stripped of overseas colonies in Africa & Asia Military reduced Land taken from east & west





47 US Senate must ratify all treaties Was divided between reservations & irreconciables Reservations were willing to sign if treaty were modified Irreconciables were staunchly isolationist Because Wilson attacked Republicans & was unwilling to compromise Senate rejected US participation in LON



50 Italy – wanted territory in Austria that it was promised in secret treaties Japan – wanted “equality of races” clause in Versailles Treaty – also wanted its claims in China recognized Russ was excluded from peace talks – resented new Baltic States on its borders All these nations would wait for an opportunity to revise settlements in their favor


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