Presentation on theme: "Chapter Four The Fifteenth Century (1400-1550) 1. Historical background 2. Popular ballads 3. Sir Thomas Malory 4. Early English plays."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Four The Fifteenth Century ( ) 1. Historical background 2. Popular ballads 3. Sir Thomas Malory 4. Early English plays
(1) The Hundred Years’ War In 1415, at the Battle of Agincourt King Henry V defeated the French army and claimed himself the heir to the French throne. King Henry VI puppet king In 1453 all English territory in France was lost to French and the English king had only a small port left to him. French heroine Joan of Arc
(2) The War of the Roses ( ) The Thirty Years’ War the House of Lancasterthe House of York a red rosea white rose Henry VIIRichard III defeated Civil War Henry VII married Elizabeth of the House of York. Then he established a highly consolidated rule.
(3) The discovery of America and the new sea routes Christopher Columbus 1492 believed that he could reach India by sailing west landed in America with Spanish sovereigns Genoese mariner Vascoda Gama 1497 Portuguese mariner sailed round the tip of Africa and reached India John cabot 1497 English mariner provided the basis for the English to North America
(4) Reformation of the church Henry VIII broke away from the Church of Rome. Henry VIII passed through Parliament the Act of Supremacy. regarded him as the supreme head on head founded the Anglican Church
The Characteristics of Popular ballads The beginning is often abrupt. There are strong dramatic elements. The story is told through dialogue and action. The theme is often tragic. The ballad meter is used. (four – line stanzas) Ballad: An important feature in the 15th century. It is a narrative poem that tells a story. “to dance”, from Latin
The subject matter of the ballads is of great variety. war and bloodshed and superstition domestic affairs and outlawry deal with blood strifes on the English—Scottish border “border ballads” love and property Robin Hood Ballads Border Ballads the most popular Chevy Chase The Battle of Otterburn
Sir Thomas Malory Le Morte d’Arthur The Death of Arthur compiled the stories of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table the whole life of King Arthur or the death of Arthur King Arthur Queenknight : Sir Launcelot illicit love Arthur’s nephew insist capture fail Mordred bastard seized the kingdom die 他是用一种任何现代读者都能看懂的散文写 这部书的，他句中的词语具有一种节奏美， 这是任何读者都会注意到的。 --- 艾弗 · 埃文斯评《亚瑟王之死》
drama time development ancient Greece and Rome most popular forms of entertainment Roman Catholic Church prohibited performance the 9th and the 10th centuries allowed performance the 14th centuryThe liturgy developed into mystery plays and miracle plays.
mystery playsmiracle plays based on stories from the Bible based on the lives of Christian saints Latinthe vernacular the clergymenthe laymen In the 14th and 15th centuries mystery and miracle plays were performed in about 40 different places in England, mostly in the North and in the East.